Citation: Study shows orangutans use their hands to make their voices deeper (2015, March 20) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-03-orangutans-voices-deeper.html Journal information: Journal of Experimental Biology This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (Phys.org)—A team of researchers with affiliations to institutions in Belgium, the U.K. and The Netherlands has found that orangutans use hand placement around their mouths to make their voices deeper, perhaps attempting to seem as if they are bigger to threats. In their paper published in The Journal of Experimental Biology, the researchers explain their study and why they believe their results might offer clues about the development of language in a species. More information: Acoustic models of orangutan hand-assisted alarm calls, The Journal of Experimental Biology, jeb.biologists.org/content/218/6/907 The team had faithfully recreated the biological mechanism used by the apes and showed that the technique they used could indeed by viewed as a means of modifying communication on purpose to cause a desired outcome. Using their hands to change how they sound to threats, the team suggests, is perhaps a form of a precursor to more advanced communications skills, if that is, they are not doing it by accident. Explore further Cod may serenade females with rhythmic grunts © 2015 Phys.org Wild male Sumatran orangutan in the Ketambe research area, Indonesia. Credit: Adriano Lameira. Biologists studying orangutans have noticed before that the apes sometimes cup their hands around their mouths when making kissing noises. While some may have assumed the gesture was friendly, later research showed it was a means by which the apes were warning others of the presence of something threatening, such as human beings. In this new effort, the researchers tested the idea that cupping the hands around the mouth made the animal seem more impressive, perhaps, to deter those presenting threats from coming closer.To learn more, the researchers used mathematical modeling to help them create a real world physical model of the vocal parts used by an orangutan to create its kissing noises and then to model the impact of using hands to modify the sound that came out. Recording analysis was used to determine the sound processing that was taking place and the impact it had on tone. The team found that cupping of the hands served to extend or elongate the path traveled by the sound (as occurs with musical instruments) and thus caused it to come out sounding lower. They also found that their model showed it was possible to create the right overtones, a key component of sound made by larger animals. They then used sound editing equipment to remove extraneous noise from recordings of orangutans in the wild making their kissing noises and compared them to their models—doing so showed a match.
Journal information: Physical Review Letters More information: Daniel Martin-Jimenez et al. Bond-Level Imaging of the 3D Conformation of Adsorbed Organic Molecules Using Atomic Force Microscopy with Simultaneous Tunneling Feedback, Physical Review Letters (2019). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.196101 © 2019 Science X Network It has been nearly a decade since AFM was introduced, allowing researchers to create images of single molecules and better understand how molecules are assembled. But the technique suffers from a major deficiency—it only works on nearly flat molecules. Those molecules with more complex 3-D characteristics are visualized only partially clearly. The reason is that the tip of the sensor oscillates at a fixed distance from the molecule under study. This means only the parts of the molecule closest to the sensor are clearly visualized. Logic has suggested that the way to fix this problem is to move the tip of the probe up and down along a path that mimics the topology of the molecule. But such an approach has proven to be elusive. Tracking the hills and valleys in real time and moving the tip just the right amount has, until now, been untenable.To overcome the problems inherent in tracking the contours of a molecule, the researchers turned to the scanning tunneling microscope (STM). It is also used to create images at the molecular level, but uses a different approach to do so. AFM uses forces from the surface under study to keep the sensor tip the proper distance for imaging—STM, on the other hand, uses the tunneling current that flows through the vacuum that exists between the sensor tip and the molecule under study. The researchers hit on the idea of using the tunneling current from STM to guide the tip of the AFM sensor tip—moving it up and down in lockstep with the contours of the molecule under study.The researchers report that their simple adjustment resulted in images of 3-D molecules that are as sharp for complex molecules as for those that are mostly flat. Single molecule magnet used as a scanning magnetometer A team of researchers at Justus Liebig University Giessen has found a way to dramatically improve the images of topologically complex 3-D molecules created using atomic force microscopy (AFM). In their paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters, the group describes the simple adjustment they made to the procedure that greatly improved the resolution of AFM. Citation: A better way to use atomic force microscopy to image molecules in 3-D (2019, May 21) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-05-atomic-microscopy-image-molecules-d.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further The AFM imaging of an adsorbed molecule on a substrate is usually done with the AFM tip oscillating at a constant height, where optimal imaging conditions (light blue region) are met only for the top part of the molecule. Daniel Ebeling’s group uses a constant-current mode instead, in which the AFM tip closely tracks the molecule topography, allowing a complete 3D molecular imaging. Credit: APS/Alan Stonebraker
Stunning acrobatic performances, a mighty African statue and creative artworks await you at the Afro Festival in Delhi. So, wave a Jambo- that is hello in swahili- and get onto this bandwagon.A breathtaking beautiful show of juggling arts, dramatic street entertainment and an exhibition of sculptures and paintings have been put together to celebrate the vibrant culture of Africa in the capital. The Afro Festival will open on 3 July with creative artworks and cultural display and go on to entertain the Delhites till 7 July. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The festival brings to life the experience of its people as a living and dynamic tradition that continues to evolve at the turn of the 21st century. To increase public understanding and appreciation of African art and culture, the festival is devoted exclusively to African way of life. This stunning exhibition integrates everyday life of the people, related objects with paintings and performances and interaction with the artists. This major festival presents exquisite examples of eclectic art and sculptures from Africa. Featuring works of Thomas Ongon’ga, Michael Soi, Edward Orato, Dennis Muragiri and James Oluoch, each creation showcases the artist’s mood, aesthetics and personal journey of creating their pieces of art. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixThemes explored in this exhibit are inspired by everyday activities of people in Africa, warrior-clans and wildlife. The artists’ interpretation of their work is grounded in the belief that ‘The people of Africa have created an extraordinary cultural heritage, deeply embedded in a beautiful yet fragile physical environment’. The colors in the art work are bright and bold in shades of red, ochre-yellow and ebony black.To celebrate the fun spirit, feast upon the acrobatic experience that blends circus arts with the surreal to create a world where physical strength rubs shoulders with the dare devil acts. The Jambo acrobats are backed by foot thumping Afro Caribbean music. Two acrobats each holding on to large rings that suddenly make them airborne, with a third one reaching out for them to add drama. They toss their spinning props across the stage to one another. And just when you think this is over the top, they amaze you with a finale that is probably, for anyone else on earth, impossible to perform. Look out for choreographed entertainment as you watch jugglers performing tricks and catching tossing balls in seconds. The multimedia displays are magnificent, followed by acts of bottle balancing. The magnificent and daring act is performed effortlessly under the limbo pole- the height of a beer bottle. While Capital drowns in an African cultural fiesta, dig in for your share of fun and frolic.
Elegance, grace and celebrating womanhood in style is what designer Nitya Bajaj’s new collection is all about. Aptly titled Resurrect, the collection is inspired by interiors of the Kloster Cathedral in Germany.The collection highlights romanticism along with baroque elements which is reflected in each garment. We loved the entire collection depicting floral in thread work, print, digital prints and a lot of lace work. Each garment – gowns and swim dresses shared hints of transparency with fabric interplay by lace, tulle, georgette, organza and chiffon. The pearl palettes merges into shades of gold and copper with olive and ochre colours taken from the church frescos. These are depicted with intricate beadwork and sequins ending the collection in the palette of maroons and crimsons. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Mother’s walking the ramp with their children was an adorable way to celebrate every aspect of womanhood. The show stopper for the evening was actor Elli Avram who walked the ramp in a stunning outfit from the collection. She wore a beautiful red gown with sequins work in the front, depicted ethereal luxury, celebrating multicultural, multifaceted lifestyles of women today who believe in timeless pieces of art.‘Fashion is an individual statement and a designer enhances that individuality with his or her signature. My label celebrates womanhood, the femininity, the elegance and the power of being She,’ Bajaj said.
At the brain-storming meeting of the Election Authority of the party, Gandhi is learnt to have expressed his concern over the tardy pace of organizational polls and asked young AICC secretaries to take responsibility to ensure that it gets the needed momentum in states.Re-introducing active membership concept, common membership across all the wings of Congress and enhanching the representation ratio of SCs, STs, OBCs and minorities in Committees are some of the measures that were debated threadbare during the meeting in which Gandhi was present for one and half hour. Also Read – Need to understand why law graduate’s natural choice is not legal profession: CJIThrust was laid on opening up the membership enrolment by introducing multiple channels like web-based application and smart phone application as well as providing “incentives” for a member who enrolls at least 25 members.From the meeting, coming a day before Delhi goes to vote, it emerged that the Congress Vice President was focussing on long-term strategies.Party General Secretary in-charge Organization Janardan Dwivedi could not attend the meeting as he was down with viral fever while some other general secretaries also failed to turn up. Also Read – Health remains key challenge in India’s development: KovindThe membership drive, which was earlier set to have ended on December 31 of last year, was extended for two months is to wrap up this month-end with Gandhi not quite keen on further extending it.The Central Election Authority headed by senior leader Mullapalli Rmachandran submitted some proposals and amendments to better the organizational functioning of the party, which was considered by the apex decision making body of the party, Congress Working Committee in a meeting on January 13. The CWC decided to take inputs from the states on the proposed changes and fine-tune the proposal and if necessary, place them before AICC session likely in March-April.This time there will be open membership and the party plans to carry out rigorous scrutiny to ensure transparent selection.There have been several complaints earlier regarding bogus membership and kin of senior politicians occupying key posts in the party by ‘managing’ elections.In a statement, the party said that since it is seriously considering to introduce active membership concept, the Election Authority exhorted each Congress workers to enrol at least 25 members and maintain its record to access “incentives” to be announced by the party, for every one, who enrolls a minimum of 25 members.
Kolkata: Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee on Thursday announced that the state government would construct a Jagannath temple near Jagannath Ghat in Digha, which has already emerged as a major tourist destination.Banerjee was speaking at the administrative review meeting in East Midnapore. The Jagannath temple would be set up in the district along the footsteps of the temple in Puri, where large numbers of devotees congregate to offer their prayers. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal life”We are going to construct a temple at Jagannath Ghat in Digha, similar to Puri. The ghat would also be renovated. The Jagannath temple that we see in Puri had been constructed many years ago. We are developing a temple here keeping it in mind,” the Chief Minister said. She instructed the state Tourism department to prepare a Detailed Project Report (DPR) after discussing the matter in detail with the district administration. It may be mentioned here that after coming to power, the Mamata Banerjee government had taken up a beautification drive in the beach town and along the sea shore. Since then, the footfall of tourists in Digha and other beach towns in the district has gone up significantly. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedDuring her meeting with the administrative officials, Banerjee inquired about the latest status of the 3 marine bridges which she had proposed 3-4 years ago. The officials told her that the construction of two bridges would be started within one year, while the third one would take some time. The Chief Minister advised the Public Works Department (PWD) to start all the three projects simultaneously. She instructed the government officials to expedite the project. Banerjee announced that construction of the International Convention Centre at Digha would be completed within the next two months. She laid a great emphasis on the cleanliness of the place. She instructed the local administration to consider if the local Nuliahs (sea divers) can be inducted under the 100 days work scheme to maintain cleanliness of the beach town. “Digha has emerged to be one of the key tourist places in the state. A large number of people visit the place every day. Maintaining cleanliness must be the top priority. The Nuliahs who act as civic defense workers during any incident, can be engaged in two shifts for maintaining cleanliness,” she added. She also expressed her dissatisfaction over the overdue wages of the Nuliahs. She wanted to know from the administrative officials why they have not been getting money since September. They get a wage of Rs 300 per day and they work 25 days a month. “Those who save the lives of others risking their own, are not getting their wages. They should be brought under the Swasthya Sathi scheme. Take necessary steps to disburse their dues on immediate basis,” Banerjee told the district administration. She also stated that Tajpur port will be constructed at an estimated cost of Rs 12,000 crore, where various other ancillaries would come up, creating job opportunities. A fund of Rs 17,000 crore has already been invested for various projects in the district, while many others worth nearly Rs 8,600 crore are in the pipeline. She also inquired about the various fishery development schemes that are being run in the district. She proposed to set up a fish land bank and marketing centres where the fishermen can sell their catches. In reply to a question posed by state Transport minister Suvendu Adhikari, the Chief Minister asked the Home Secretary to expedite the investigation into the disappearance of people from Nandigram that took place during the Left Front regime. The CID has been investigating the case.
Kolkata: The narcotics cell of detective department has arrested two persons, including a woman, and seized heroin worth Rs 4 lakh from them at Pragati Maidan area on Friday.Officials claimed that the arrested persons had planned to sell the drug to students from various educational institutions in the city. On Monday, a woman was arrested near a renowned school on AJC Bose Road with 3 kg ganja. According to a source, sleuths of detective department recently got a tip-off that some drug dealers were targeting students of various schools and colleges. Working on the information, they identified Munni Das, who had come to AJC Bose road, to sell ganja to some students on Monday afternoon. She was arrested immediately and sleuths seized 3 kg ganja from her possession. Also Read – Bose & Gandhi: More similar than apart, says Sugata BoseAfter Das was questioned, sleuths used their sources to search for some more drug dealers who were a part of this racket. On Thursday, police got a tip-off that some drug dealers were going to meet at a place in Pragati Maidan area. Based on the information, members of the narcotics cell of the detective department kept an eye in the area. In the evening, some sleuths spotted a woman. One of them identified the woman as Sabina Bibi a known drug peddler. The other person was identified as Bapi Molla who had come to meet Bibi. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: MamataBoth of them were arrested by the police. They were taken to the detective department office at Lalbazar. During search, sleuths found about 4,300 multi-coloured small packets of heroin. About 460 grams of heroin worth more than Rs 4 lakh was seized by the police. During interrogation, the police found that Bibi was the supplier of the drug. Molla used to get commission from her to sell the drug to students of several schools and colleges in Sealdah, Entally and Anandapur areas.
Excessive use of social media including Facebook, Snapchat, and Instagram is associated with poor well-being which could lead to depression and loneliness, researchers have warned. The study, published in the Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, showed that limiting screen time on these apps could boost one’s wellness. “When you are not busy getting sucked into clickbait social media, you are actually spending more time on things that are more likely to make you feel better about your life,” said Melissa Hunt from the University of Pennsylvania in the US. For the study, researchers from the varsity, included 143 undergraduate participants. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfThe team designed their experiment to include the three platforms most popular with the participants. They collected objective usage data automatically tracked by mobile phones for active apps, not those running in the background, and asked respondents to complete a survey to determine mood and well-being. The participants were then randomly assigned to a control group, which had users maintain their typical social-media behaviour, or an experimental group that limited time on Facebook, Snapchat, and Instagram to 10 minutes per platform per day. In addition, the participants shared mobile phone battery screenshots for the next three weeks to give the researchers weekly tallies for each individual.
Kolkata: State Information Technology and Electronics (IT&E) department is joining hands with Maulana Abul Kalam Azad University of Technology (MAKAUT) to provide aBSc in animation and film making. “Makaut has given us certain terms and conditions which we will be fulfilling soon. Our target is to churn out 500 graduates a year in the field of animation, visual effects who will be job ready immediately after they graduate,” said Amit Mitra, minister of IT&E addressing a knowledge workshop on Animation, VFX and Gaming organized by Webel, a nodal agency of the state IT& E department. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: MamataThe minister on Friday handed over certificates to 23 students who have successfully completed their course from Webel DQE Animation Academy. “Institutes offer training but do not guarantee jobs after that. All 23 students who were given certificates have secured jobs. We will be keeping up this trend. Next year we will be having 68 students from this academy,” Mitra said. The state IT department is coming up with a Centre of Excellence on Innovation at Salt Lake Sector V which will be dedicated to cutting edge emerging technologies. A land of 1.5 acre has been earmarked for the centre whose plan and design has already been readied. The state government will dedicate one or two floors at the proposed centre exclusively to animation . Also Read – Lightning kills 8, injures 16 in stateTalking of the enormous growth potential in this sector, Mitra said that the government will take a realistic and sustainable approach so that Bengal can position itself in a dominant position not only in the country but also in the world. The minister welcomed similar centres of animation in the private sector in the state and said that he wants noted media services provider like Netflix and Amazon Prime to come to Kolkata to provide indigenous animated products for the future. The minister lauded the efforts of state Additional Chief Secretary IT & E Debashis Sen and his Webel team for the professionalism and high standards offered in the Webel DQE Animation Academy . “Content will be in demand in the future. We are trying to create an infrastructure and the required eco- system for creation of content as well as product development,” Sen said.
A recent archaeological discovery in Turkey promises to shed more light on reconstructing one of the most pivotal events in the history of Christianity as an organized religion ― the Council of Nicaea. Before the division of the Church in 1054, and certainly, before Martin Luther, one summit laid the foundation of Christianity and helped unify the teachings of Christ into a coherent system, capable of serving as the official religion of the Roman Empire.It was held in 325 AD, in a city which at the time was an established cultural and trade center of the ancient world ― Nicaea.Iznik (Nicea), Turkey.The Council of Nicaea was convened by the emperor Constantine, who summoned the most important bishops across the Empire to take part in a theological debate which would once and for all settle the question of the nature of the Trinity and the relationship between Jesus the Son and God the Father.During that time, there were two currents within the relatively young Christian Church, which was by that time a respected institution in the Roman Empire, gaining new followers and growing its influence every day.Section of the ancient Roman walls surrounding the historic city of Nicea (Iznik), Turkey.The debate which was to be settled referred to the teachings of Arius, a priest and scholar from Alexandria, who disagreed with the bishop Athanasius of Alexandria.The debate centered around an issue of whether or not was Jesus of the same substance as the Father ― in Greek homoousios ― or was he of a slightly different substance, which was Arius’ idea encircled by the term homoiousios.The Nicean theatre, restored by Pliny the Younger. Photo by QuartierLatin1968 -CC BY-SA 3.0No, you are not mistaken, there is only a single “I,” or iota in Greek, separating these two terms, and yes, this indeed was the reason for organizing such a large scale council including 318 delegates hailing from all four corners of the Roman Empire.From this debate, in which Arius was defeated, came the expression which remains in use to this day ― “an iota of difference” or “a jot of difference.”Smeared and defeated, Arius and his followers very soon fell into obscurity and Christ became the “true God from true God, begotten, not made, of one being (homoousios) with the Father. Through him, all things were made.” It is from this Council that the Nicene Creed was formed, creating the basis for Christianity’s Trinity dogma.Emperor Constantine, accompanied by the bishops of the First Council of Nicaea (325), holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed.So, that was the brief history of the Council of Nicaea and its participants. However, given the importance of the summit and the knowledge provided by ancient historians, archaeologists have been scoping the area where Nicaea once stood for decades, in search for further proof and details regarding the council.Related Video: 6 World Famous Landmarks Hiding Something from the PublicThis important archaeological site is today known as the modern Turkish town of Iznik and it is sitting next to a huge lake of the same name, in the western tip of Turkey, some 56 miles (90 km) from Istanbul.Seventh ecumenical council, Icon, 17th century, Novodevichy Convent, Moscow.Since 2006, Dr. Mustafa Şahin has been probing the ground around Iznik, looking for artifacts belonging to the rich history of the city. Little did he know that in 2014, he would hit his biggest discovery yet.It appears as though the head of the archaeology department at Bursa Uludağ University had been searching in the wrong place ― on the ground ― while he should’ve asked the lake for answers instead.When local surveyors showed him aerial images of what seemed to be a man-made building foundation in the middle of the Iznik lake, Şahin couldn’t believe his eyes.He described his excitement in an interview for Live Science, he had given on September 5th, 2018:“When I first saw the images of the lake, I was quite surprised to see a church structure that clearly. I was doing field surveys in Iznik [since 2006], and I hadn’t discovered such a magnificent structure like that.”The excavation of the structure led to evidence that it was the St. Neophytos of Nicaea basilica, which collapsed in 740 AD after a devastating earthquake. Presumably built in 390 AD, in the form in which it was discovered, Dr. Şahin has reasons to believe that the spot had been a site for ritual gathering way before Christianity became the official religion of Rome.Painting of “The Council of Nicea” in Sumela monastery, Macka, Trabzon, Turkey.According to the Turkish archaeologist the basilica may have been built on top of a pagan temple dedicated to the sun-god, Apollo. This comes as no surprise as the Greek and Roman deity was in the early stages of Christianity associated with the growing image of Jesus.Roman records from the period of emperor Commodus’ rule indicate that a temple dedicated to Apollo was built outside the city fortifications, sometimes in the period between 180 to 192 AD.Initially, the basilica was barely visible from the air. The excavation process, supervised by Mustafa Şahin, soon revealed the entire structure. However, this was no easy task ―the lake is rich with algae, which significantly reduces visibility under water, and the archaeologists had to use special vacuum equipment to extract soil from the submerged basilica to the shore, where it was then closely searched for artifacts.On the other hand, the excavations quickly bore fruit ― early Roman coins and fragments of an ancient lamp were discovered, together with several graves still holding human remains.Due to its size and historical importance, the question soon arose among scholars and curious journalists alike ― was this the site where the Council of Nicaea actually took place?Archaeologists have agreed that this might be possible as this was probably the main temple in Nicaea at the time the council took place.Further research will surely try to answer that question, but in the meantime, the remains of the basilica have sparked interest among the town’s officials as well.Read another story from us: Incredibly Well-Preserved 16th Century Warship DiscoveredAs the basilica remains submerged three meters underwater, talks are already being made for creating the first-ever underwater archaeology museum in Turkey, which would be open for business sometime in 2019. The complex would include a tower which would provide the viewing of the basilica and diving courses as well as professional guides, leading the tours.