KUSI Newsroom, Categories: California News, Local San Diego News FacebookTwitter 00:00 00:00 spaceplay / pause qunload | stop ffullscreenshift + ←→slower / faster ↑↓volume mmute ←→seek . seek to previous 12… 6 seek to 10%, 20% … 60% XColor SettingsAaAaAaAaTextBackgroundOpacity SettingsTextOpaqueSemi-TransparentBackgroundSemi-TransparentOpaqueTransparentFont SettingsSize||TypeSerif MonospaceSerifSans Serif MonospaceSans SerifCasualCursiveSmallCapsResetSave SettingsSAN DIEGO ( KUSI) – Recently, San Diego County’s regional transportation planning agency, SANDAG, released a plan to cut 14 freeway and highway improvements and shift all of that money into “transit” for downtown San Diego and to fund conversion of road lanes to dedicated bike lanes.SANDAG and its subsidiary MTS also propose higher taxes: both a massive Sales Tax hike and a “Congestion Tax” for anyone wanting to use the roads with all that money going to transit, not roads.Despite a recent poll that even shows voters in the heavily urban areas of the City of San Diego overwhelmingly oppose these proposals by a whopping two-to-one margin, SANDAG and politicians continue to push Road Repair Raids and the Congestion Tax forward.Carl DeMaio hosted a town hall to engage San Diegans about the issue and continue to fight back against the politicians who want to push these road raids. Posted: June 25, 2019 June 25, 2019 SANDAG plan to cut 14 freeway and highway improvements to fund conversion of road lanes to dedicated bike lanes KUSI Newsroom
Tags Our wishlist for Google I/O 2019 3:13 Post a comment 0 Now playing: Watch this: Originally published May 6, 6:03 a.m. PT.Update, at 6:32 a.m. PT: Added details about Google grants for teachers, 8:52 a.m. PT: Added more details about Rodney Robinson. Share your voice Google had almost 60,000 doodles to choose from for Teacher Appreciation Week. Google Google is celebrating teachers on Monday. If you check out the search engine’s page, you’ll see a crayon-style Google Doodle surrounded by pencils, protractors, apples, puzzle pieces and other school-related images.”Today’s Doodle was created in partnership with the 57 2019 US State Teachers of the Year who visited Google in January for their first group meeting and explores the theme ‘A day in the life of a teacher,'” Google said in a blog post.In honor of Teacher Appreciation Week, Google said it’s making one its largest teacher-focused grants — a $5 million Google.org grant that’ll unlock $10 million for teachers through DonorsChoose.org. For every dollar that’s donated to the nonprofit, Google will add 50 cents, from Monday to Tuesday, up to $1.5 million total. Rodney Robinson, 2019 National Teacher of the Year, created the doodle. Robinson said he went into teaching to honor his mother, Sylvia Robinson, who was denied the opportunity to become an educator because of poverty and segregation. Instead, his mother opened an in-home daycare center for children in the neighborhood and taught in a different way. Today, Robinson teaches social studies in a juvenile detention facility in Virginia. “I work to create a positive school culture and empower my students to become civically minded social advocates,” Robinson said.When he was chosen as Virginia’s Teacher of the Year, Robinson said he was “elated.” “Google’s homepage today is a tribute to teachers, and I feel proud to see the contribution I made — alongside my 56 fellow State Teachers of the Year — up there for everyone to see,” Robinson said in a blog post. Teacher Appreciation Week was trending on Twitter Monday morning as thousands took to social media to celebrate educators.Even with that sort of recognition, teachers often find themselves in a tough situation, living on modest salaries while running classrooms with a lack of resources and having to purchase supplies out of pocket. Over the last year, those working conditions have led to walkouts, sickouts and strikes. Internet Culture
Hamzat Sani, Special to the AFROLate Tuesday Mayor Muriel Bowser gathered several of her agency heads to address a 50 percent increase in homicides since last year and spike in violence over the Memorial Day weekend, which claimed the lives of 4 district residents and saw another 10 wounded by gunfire. Bowser addressed a crowd of media and a few community members outside of the Department of For-Hire Vehicles on Shannon Place Southeast with a mural of the late Mayor Marion Barry serving as backdrop for what was at times a testy press conference.In a Monday press release Mayor Bowser said, “Over the weekend, we deployed additional police and non-law enforcement resources to communities in Wards 7 and 8 experiencing an increase in violence. While an enhanced police presence can help keep residents safe, we know that policing alone will not put a permanent stop to the violence in our communities. We ask residents to partner with us by reporting any criminal activity and send a clear message: violence will not be tolerated.”Concerned residents gathered on Memorial Day to discuss the alarming uptick in violence.The release noted that the Metropolitan Police Department (MPD) increased staffing levels to nearly 25 percent in the Sixth and Seventh Districts in addition to partnering with the Narcotics and Special Investigation Division, the Special Operations Division, and the Homeland Security Bureau to add additional personnel over the weekend.On the non-law enforcement side the administration activated the Safer Stronger Office of Neighborhood Safety and Engagement, the Department of Youth Rehabilitation Services’ Credible Messengers, and the Department of Parks and Recreation’s Roving Leaders in Wards 5, 7 and 8. The Court Services and Offender Supervision Agency, tasked with monitoring all adults on supervised release, will conduct check-ins throughout the week with individuals on probation and parole in the District.Bowser acknowledged the frustration of community members subject to continued violence noting a gathering of about 200 residents at a Community Planning Meeting held at the Check It Enterprises Event Space on MLK Jr. Ave in Anacostia. The meeting held on May 28 to address the Ward 8 violence crisis included remarks from Councilmembers Trayon White and Kenyon McDuffie focused on community oriented approaches to curbing the spike in violence.At Large Council candidate Marcus Goodwin who was present at the gathering said, “People are frustrated with the lack of community and parental engagement to stop systemic violence; as well as the public safety climate that our law enforcement officials and elected leaders have allowed to persist for generations.Both Bowser and MPD Chief Peter Newsham called for continued community involvement in taking illegal guns off the street and bringing crime suspects to justice.Newsham went on to provide details on 3 homicide suspects: 17 year old Kaevon Sutton, 16 year old Daquan Gray; and Alonzo Lewis. The 33 year old Lewis is wanted in connection with the double homicide, this past Saturday, of 40-year old Jaquon Helm of Southwest, D.C. and 35-year old Venius Badgett of Southwest, D.C. MPD offers a reward of up to $25,000 to anyone who provides information that leads to the arrest and conviction of the person or persons responsible for any homicide committed in the District of Columbia.One of the victims of this weekend’s rash of violence was the owner of District Culture in Anacostia. Alexander Mosby was a husband, father and respected member of the community he loved, grew upon and sought to serve.“Many of the homicides that we are seeing in the city are these minor disputes that evolve into shootings and homicides because of the introduction of an illegal firearm into the incident,” Newsham said.The Tuesday press conference marks the first time back at the podium since she was granted adoptive custody of a little girl. The Mayor ended the press conference noting that while a little tired she felt lucky to have her little girl.“The thing that I enjoy the most is looking down at those little eyes looking back at me.”
US broadband households that own a streaming media device watch more video on TV on average than homes without one of these devices, according to Parks Associates.The research firm claims that US streaming device households watch an average of 22 hours of video on TV sets per week, compared to 18 hours per-week for homes with no such device.Streaming device homes watch six hours per week of internet video on the TV, compared to three hours among non-owners, but only eight hours of broadcast TV compared to 10 hours for households without a streaming media device, according to Parks.“Adoption of streaming devices, combined with an increasing supply of OTT options, has altered the video environment, demanding new business models in advertising, content creation, and video subscriptions,” said Brett Sappington, director, research, Parks Associates.
Cllr Mickey CooperSINN Féin Councillor Mickey Cooper has branded as “disgusting” the trail of destruction left behind at the Creggan Country Burn walk way.He said: “I was contacted by a local resident who would use the park on a daily basis and its the first time they have seen anything on this scale.“The contents of the bins were strewn across the walkways with broken class and rubbish everywhere.“A newly installed dog waste bin was ripped from its fixtures , with its contents all over the place.“I have been in contact with the council to try and get the area cleaned up and repairs carried out as soon as possible due to health concerns particularly with the dog waste bin. ShareTweet “It’s disgusting that anyone would do this sort of thing to a public amenity, which the people of the greater Rosemount area have been waiting on for years.”VANDALS CAUSE TRAIL OF DESTRUCTION AT CREGGAN COUNTRY BURN was last modified: December 5th, 2016 by John2John2 Tags: COUNCILLOR MICKEY COOPERROSEMOUNT AREASinn FeinVANDALS CAUSE TRAIL OF DESTRUCTION AT CREGGAN COUNTRY BURN
Sponsor Advertisement I’m only speculating here, but I would guess that JPMorgan et al were covering short position like mad in all precious metals yesterdayWell, that little uptick shortly before 10:00 a.m. in London yesterday morning turned out to be the high of the day for gold. If it made it above the $1,600 spot level, it was only for a few seconds before the buyer[s] ran into an avalanche of selling from the usual not-for-profit suspects.It was all down hill from there, of course…but the gold price managed to open the Comex trading session in the black by a few bucks, but that lasted less than five minutes before the high-frequency traders showed up and began to engineer the price lower.The most ferocious part of the price decline started at 10:30 a.m. Eastern time…and in well under twenty minutes, the gold price cratered for another fifteen bucks.That proved to be the low the day at $1,570.70 spot…and from there a nice rally began that took the gold price back to over $1,592 spot. But that was as high as it got…or was allowed to get…and the gold price slowly drifted lower until shortly before 4:00 p.m. Eastern time…and from there traded flat into the 5:15 p.m. electronic close.Gold finished the Tuesday session at $1,582.40 spot…down $6.20 from Monday. It should come as no surprise that the volume figures for Tuesday were 50% higher than Monday’s, as net volume was around 129,000 contracts.It was precisely the same story in silver…except the price was more ‘volatile’. Silver’s high…around $27.65 spot…came at the same time as gold’s…shortly before 10:00 a.m. in London. Silver was still up about a dime at the Comex open until the high-frequency traders showed up at 9:40 a.m….and then again at 10:35 a.m. Eastern time.The low in silver [$26.68 spot] came at the same as gold’s low. The subsequent rally took silver back above its Monday close and the Tuesday opening price on the Comex…and the New York high of the day. But that wasn’t allowed to last, and silver closed the trading session at the same closing price as Monday…$27.31 spot. What was the chance that that was a coincidence? Net volume was also 50% higher than Monday’s volume…with 36,000 contracts traded vs. 23,000 contracts traded on Monday.The dollar index didn’t do a whole heck of a lot during Far East or London trading on Tuesday. It was down about twenty basis points in early Far East trading…but then rallied back to basically unchanged by the 8:00 a.m. London open. From there it more or less traded sideways until exactly 10:00 a.m. Eastern time, which also happened to coincide with the time of the London p.m. gold fix.Then, in the space of about forty minutes, the index rallied about 40 basis points. The dollar index high tick just coincidentally happened to coincide with the low of both gold and silver in New York yesterday morning.From that high, the index got sold off…giving up all its gains and more by 4:00 p.m. Eastern time. From there, the dollar index traded flat into the close, finishing the Tuesday trading session down about 15 basis points at 82.92.I’d like to say that yesterday’s sell-off in the precious metals was all currency related, but that certainly doesn’t explain the decline in both metals that began at 10:00 a.m. in London…and which continued right up until 10:00 a.m. in New York. A large chunk of the dollar index rally was in the bag before either gold or silver got sold off hard…and it’s my opinion that they didn’t fall off the turnip truck at 10:30 a.m. Eastern on their own…they got pushed.The gold stocks actually spent a few minutes in the black after trading began in the equity markets in New York yesterday morning. But that didn’t last too long..and from there they got sold off over two percent to their low at 10:40 a.m. Eastern time. Then they rallied sharply until a few minutes after 12 o’clock noon…and then traded sideways from there. The HUI finished down 0.97% on the day…and back below the 400 mark.There was the odd green arrow in the silver stocks yesterday…but they closed mostly down on the day…but Nick Laird’s Silver Sentiment Index actually finished the Tuesday trading day up 0.56%. Considering the closing price of the seven big cap silver stocks that make up this index, I found this very hard to believe…and I told Nick that.(Click on image to enlarge)The CME’s Daily Delivery Report showed that 2 gold and 436 silver contracts were posted for delivery on Thursday. The big shocker, at least for me, was that the big short/issuer was JPMorgan in its in-house/proprietary account. They’re delivering 426 contracts. The biggest long/stopper was the Bank of Nova Scotia with 324 contracts…along with 63 contracts for JPMorgan in its client account…and 43 contracts for ABN Amro. The Issuers and Stoppers Report is definitely worth looking at…and the link is here.There were no reported changes in either GLD or SLV…and the U.S. Mint didn’t have a sales report either.Over at the Comex-approved depositories, they reported receiving 599,779 troy ounces of silver on Monday…and shipped 906,225 ounces of the stuff out the door.Ted Butler pointed out to me yesterday that Sprott’s Physical Silver Trust [PSLV/PHS.U] has already reported receiving around 5.2 million ounces of the silver that it had ordered.Here’s an e-mail that I received from reader Eddie Costik yesterday…and it’s pretty much self-explanatory…Ed…”I have news for you….the home industry in the U.S. is finished as we know it. Retail sales for home improvement were down 1.6% for the month of June. I’m still in touch with wholesale distributors of building materials…nobody in that industry is making any money. My small retail lumber company is only one of five remaining in a five county area of Central Pennsylvania. Everyone is struggling. The halcyon days from the past are over. Mortgage rates are at all time lows but very few can qualify because of stringent qualification requirements. There are so many foreclosures that banks are holding them off the market so they don’t have to write them down. If Obama gets his way…. eliminating the Bush tax cuts we’re headed for an economic abyss. Then again how much worse can it get? A lot. Hold onto your behind this is not going to end well.” It was a very slow news day yesterday, so I’m delighted to report that I don’t have much reading material for you…but there are quite a few of the ones that I do have, that are well worth your time.As investors begin to realize that gold has not peaked, and that today’s “high” prices are actually just a step on the way up, I expect more of them to pile into the gold sector. The pressure to find sectors and companies with a good return will send Main Street investors, Wall Street fund managers, and sovereign wealth funds into our market. The spectacle will be, as Doug Casey likes to say, like trying to pour the contents of the Hoover Dam through a garden hose. – Louis James, Senior Metals Investment Strategist, Casey ResearchThere’s not much one can say about yesterday’s price action in all the precious metals except to say that we’ve seen this particular movie lots of times in the past…an engineered price decline behind a manufactured rally in the dollar index.As I mentioned in my closing remarks in ‘The Wrap’ yesterday…Tuesday was the cut-off for Friday’s Commitment of Traders Report, so I was prepared for anything as far as price movement went…and this price pattern didn’t surprise me one bit.I’m only speculating here, but I would guess that JPMorgan et al were covering short position like mad in all precious metals yesterday…and going further on the long side as well in the subsequent rally, which had all the hallmarks of a short covering rally. I am hopeful that all this price action will show up in Friday’s COT report…and it should be obvious to anyone that the ‘powers that be’ want gold below $1,600 spot for as long as possible.It was gratifying to see John Hathaway come out of the closet and state that ‘da boyz’ are obviously managing the gold price…just as they are managing the LIBOR. I would suspect that Eric King will have the audio interview of that blog posted on this website sometime today…and I will be posting it this space as soon as it becomes available.Not much happened in Far East trading during their Wednesday…and it’s pretty much the same now that London is open. Volume is light in both metals…and the dollar index is not doing a thing, either.I haven’t a clue as to how gold will trade during the Comex session in New York today, but one can assume that the worse the news, the lower the gold price will be engineered. As to when the precious metal prices break higher, it’s 100% up to JPMorgan et al…and when they decide to end their duties as a not-for-profit seller, it will be immediately apparent in the price…and not a moment before.I hope that your Wednesday goes well…and I’ll see you tomorrow. Bayfield Ventures Corp. (TSX.V: BYV) is exploring for gold and silver in the Rainy River District of NW Ontario. The Company’s 100% owned “Burns” Block property adjoins the immediate east of Rainy River Resources’ (TSX.V: RR) world-class gold deposit which includes an indicated resource of 5.72 million ounces of gold, averaging 1.18 g/t, in addition to an inferred resource of 2.25 million ounces of gold, averaging 0.79 g/t. Drilling to date on Bayfield’s Burns Block demonstrates that the ODM17gold zone extends from Rainy River Resources’ ground onto the Burns Block. Bayfield is currently carrying out 100,000 metres of diamond drilling on its Rainy River properties. Drill results thus far have been very encouraging. Notable drill results include 60.05 grams per tonne gold and 362.96 grams per tonne silver over 11.2 metres within 26.70 grams per tonne gold and 170.69 grams per tonne silver over 25.5 metres, as well as 35.93 grams per tonne gold and 359.65 grams per tonne silver over 10.0 metres. Bayfield also holds a 100% interest in two other properties in the Rainy River District. Claim blocks “B” and “C” are well located to the immediate east and west (respectively) of Rainy River Resources’ #433 and ODM17 gold zones. Please visit our website to learn more about the company and request information.
Sponsor Advertisement I wasn’t amused that the precious metals shares got sold off as heavily as they did…Just eye-balling the Kitco gold chart below, it’s obvious to me that the gold price, despite several serious attempts to do so, wasn’t going to be allowed to break above the $1,720 spot mark anywhere on Planet Earth yesterday and, with the exception of the high tick of the day [$1,724.10 spot] at the London p.m. gold fix, it didn’t.The gold price finished the day at $1,716.00 spot…up a whole 80 cents from Friday’s New York close. Net volume was very light at only around 108,000 contracts.Here’s the New York Spot Gold [Bid] chart on its own…and three of four of gold’s attempts to climb above the above mentioned price got turned back…and the glaring one is at the 3:00 p.m. GMT London gold fix…10:00 a.m. Eastern.Silver rallied right from the New York open on Sunday night…and its Far East high came around 10:00 a.m. Hong Kong time. It was all down hill from there until the noon silver fix in London.That proved to be the low of the day. The subsequent rally ran into the usual not-for-profit seller at the afternoon London gold fix…and that was it.Silver closed at $33.66 spot…up 22 cents on the day. Net volume was a rather unexciting 30,500 contracts…give or take.The dollar index, which closed on Friday at 80.24, was under pressure right from the get-go in Far East trading on their Monday morning…which most likely explains the initial rally in gold and silver.The index sank under the 80.00 mark around 3:00 p.m. in Hong Kong…about an hour before London opened. From there it kept declining in fits and starts…closing around the 79.89 mark…down about 35 basis points on the day.It was obvious that both gold and silver wanted to rally at midday in London…and at the Comex open…but it’s equally obvious that there were forces standing by to make sure that it didn’t happen.The US dollar index packed up on the ino.com Internet site around 9:00 a.m. yesterday morning…and as you can see, I stole the chart below from one of Peter Spina’s websites…goldseek.com…and I’m sure he won’t mind.As you are more than aware, the shares did very poorly yesterday…and the HUI finished down 2.33%. The HUI from that yahoo.com website has been M.I.A. for many days now…and here’s one that Scott Pluschau offered up in its stead.(Click on image to enlarge)The silver shares fared little better…and despite the metal itself finishing well in the black, the shares got sold down pretty hard as well. Nick Laird’s Silver Sentiment Index closed down 1.68%.(Click on image to enlarge)The CME’s Daily Delivery Report for ‘Day 3’ in the December delivery month showed that 1,906 gold and 712 silver contracts were posted for delivery on Wednesday within the Comex-approved depositories.In gold, the big short/issuer was Deutsche Bank with 1,741 contracts posted for delivery…and in very distant second place came the Bank of Nova Scotia with 162 contracts. The big long/stopper in gold was JPMorgan Chase with 1,565 contracts…275 in its client account and 1,290 in its proprietary [in house] trading account. There were about a dozen other small stoppers accounting for the rest.In silver, the big short/issuer was Deutsche Bank as well with 579 contracts…and JPMorgan, in its proprietary account, was in second with 106 contracts. The biggest long/stopper was JPMorgan in its client account with 341 contracts. Second was Barclays with 225 contracts…and third was Credit Suisse First Boston with 98.The Issuers and Stoppers Report is well worth a few minutes of your time…and the link is here. Note the delivery info in palladium as well…Deutsche Bank, JPMorgan and Barclays.If you haven’t figured it out already, it should be patently obvious that JPMorgan is at the center of the precious metals universe.There were no reported changes in either GLD or SLV yesterday…and no sales report from the U.S. Mint, either.Over at the Comex-approved depositories on Friday, they reported receiving no silver at all…but shipped 458,050 troy ounces out the door. The link to that activity is here.Washington reader S.A. had no charts for me today…but he more than made up for it by sending me a photo of the latest addition to the Oregon Zoo.Being a Tuesday column, I have a few more stories than usual for you today…and I’ll leave the final edit up to you.I have no doubt that the CFTC is publishing accurate data on COMEX silver. Without that data, I couldn’t begin to make a case for manipulation. The problem is that all the agency does is to publish accurate data that prove that silver is manipulated in price…and then refuses to react to the clear proof of manipulation. Due to a decrease in reported spread positions in this week’s disaggregated COT report, JPMorgan’s 38,000 contract silver short position “only” increased to 34.7% of the entire net COMEX short position from the previous week’s 34%. But the 190 million ounces that the 38,000 contracts represent is equal to 25% of the world’s total annual silver mine production of 760 million oz. If one trading entity was short 25% of the annual world production of any other commodity that entity would be in jail the day it became known. For that entity in silver to be a systemically important US bank is shocking in its own regard. In many ways, I admit that this is so extreme as to not be fully comprehendible. Believe me when I tell you that I can hardly comprehend that I label JPMorgan as crooked and get away with it. – Silver analyst Ted Butler… 01 December 2012Even though volume was pretty light in both silver and gold yesterday, it was obvious [at least to me] that the prices of both metals weren’t allowed to get far, even though the dollar index dropped below the psychologically important 80.00 mark.I wasn’t amused that the precious metals shares got sold off as heavily as they did…and I’ll quote a paragraph on this from my Saturday column…“I’d like to think that it’s strong hands buying all the shares that are falling off the table as weak-kneed day traders hit the ‘sell’ button…but I’m always concerned that “da boyz” are buying up all these shares in order to dump them later when they need to suppress the share prices as well. I know that John Embry would be in total agreement with this scenario. But maybe I’m looking for a black bear in a dark room that’s not there.”I leave it up to you, dear reader, to ponder the notion of whether or not there is any truth in that paragraph…for, or against.As you may remember, I’ve had correspondence with Scotiabank here in Canada about whether or not they were the bank that was fingered by the CFTC as the “non-U.S. bank” in their November Bank Participation Report. All enquires sent by myself…and other readers…ended up with the same “non-denial denial” type of answer.So, on Sunday, I sent an e-mail off to the ombudsman at Scotiabank…and here is what I had to say…02 December 2012Mr. Charles DougallOmbudsmanScotiabankHi Charles,I’ve been trying to get an answer to a question that I asked of your firm a month or so ago.I started off with Andy Montano at Scotia Mocatta…and have since graduated to Rick Waugh…and got immediately passed off to Dave Shearim. I have not received a direct answer, except for the usual ‘non-denial denial’…the normal runaround corporations give when they really don’t want to answer and are just trying to blow someone off.I’m not asking for trading secrets, or the trading positions of any client [in-house or otherwise] that may exist over at Scotia Mocatta…as I fully understand that this client privileged information.Here is the sequence e-mails as posted in ‘The Wrap’ section of my daily column over at Casey Research on November 6th…[There was a bit more to this e-mail than that at the end, but what you see above is the essence of what I sent]The reply I got back on Monday was as follows…Dear Mr. Steer, We acknowledge receipt of your email dated December 2nd. After a preliminary review of your email, we wish to inform you that there are certain issues that are deemed to be outside the mandate of the Office of the Ombudsman, which may include the issue(s) you have raised. Having said that, we will make inquiries into your concerns and will respond to you further in due course. Yours truly, Marlaine Radke Assistant Ombudsman Scotiabank – Executive Offices 44 King Street West Toronto, ON M5H 1H1 Telephone: (416) 933-3299 Fax: (416) 933-3276And that’s where it sits at this point…and I’ll let you know the contents of any further correspondence that I receive, or send. I get the impression from the tone of the reply, that I’m not going to get very far, but you never know.Both gold and silver came under selling pressure the moment that Far East trading began on their Tuesday. Then, as you’ve already noted, the bid disappeared shortly before 2:00 p.m. Hong Kong time…or the high-frequency traders showed up…and the gold price dropped ten dollars in just a few minutes. This decline occurred in all four precious metals.Since those lows, they have recovered somewhat…and their respective rallies have continued [in fits and starts] into the first hour or so of trading in London. Whether these rallies will be allowed to continue is impossible to tell…but as I also said in my Saturday column, it’s a mug’s trying to predict what the precious metals will do price-wise when the heavy hands of JPMorgan Chase et al are in the market.The dollar index has been in a slow but steady decline all through Far East and the early London trading session as well…and is down about 23 basis points as I hit the ‘send’ button at 5:15 a.m. Eastern time. Volumes are monstrous…over 45,000 contracts in gold…and 9,000+ in silver. Fortunately, all of this…along with New York’s price/volume activity…will be in Friday’s Commitment of Traders Report, as the cut-off is at the 1:30 p.m. Eastern time Comex close today.And I suggest you re-read Ted Butler’s quote under the cartoons above to give you some idea of the meaning of “obscene and grotesque” when it come to a short position in the precious metals…especially silver. Between JPM and Scotiabank…if they are the second big silver short…they hold a short position of over 45% of the entire Comex futures market in silver. That was as of the Tuesday cut-off for last week’s COT Report…and it may have declined since. But by how much, won’t be known until Friday.What the precious metals do price-wise is entirely up to them…and has nothing to do with legitimate supply and demand fundamentals.That’s more than enough for today…and I’ll be very interested in the price action in New York when I switch my computer on later this morning.See you tomorrow. Tosca Mining Corporation’s goal is to acquire advanced stage projects that can be placed into production quickly. The company’s primary asset is the Red Hills Molybdenum/Copper project located in Presidio County, Texas. A program to confirm, and expand the considerable size and potential of the project and evaluate various economic scenarios was completed in 2011. Tosca recently received results from the 13 remaining holes from its phase two, 16,000 M (4,873 m) diamond drill program. Per Tosca’s Chairman, Dr. Sadek El-Alfy, “the drill program has successfully verified historic drill results of the shallow Copper-Molybdenum cap and confirmed the presence of a deeper, well mineralized Molybdenum Porphyry deposit.” The results of 21 holes drilled through the copper/moly cap in Tosca’s 2011 drill program give a weighted average grade of 0.39 % Cu over a core length of 113 feet (34.5 m). Since the copper cap is subhorizontal, the average core length can be interpreted as being approximately equivalent to true width. The copper/moly cap is crescent shaped, approximately 4,000 feet (1220 metres) long and 400 feet (122 m) to 1000 feet (305 m) wide.The 2011 program encountered numerous thick Molybdenum mineralized intervals including Hole TMC-25 wich intersected 1,189 feet (362.4 m) averaging 0.089 per cent Mo including 830 feet (253 m) of 0.1 per cent Mo from 359 feet (109.8 m) to the bottom of the hole. Hole TMC-29 cut 989 feet (301.4 m) averaging 0.09 per cent Mo including 139 feet (42.4 m) of 0.16 per cent Mo. The molybdenum grades are similar and in some cases higher than those of projects currently considered of potential economic interest.”Aggressive plans are in place for 2012 to conduct metallurgical tests, produce an updated resource estimate and Pre Economic Assesment. Tosca is operated by an experienced mine development team, operates in Texas, a mine-friendly jurisdiction and its property iseasily accessible with infrastructure in place to advance operations. Please visit our website to learn more about the company ad request information.
If you are a productive person, working in any sort of normal job, roughly half of your earnings are taken from you every year, leaving you just barely able to hang on to an acceptable lifestyle. Understand this: You are already rich, but your money is stolen from you, generally before you ever hold it in your hands. Can you imagine what would happen to government in space? Once beyond Earth’s gravity well, the spacefarers would be gone forever: no more taxes, no more obedience, and heaps of scorn for the distant barbarians who demanded money and attempted violence to get it. Space would be the 17th century American wilderness on steroids. Politicians and tax gatherers would have no hope of keeping up. The man in the photo below is Gene Cernan, the last human to walk on the moon. Cernan left the moon in December of 1972 – more than forty years ago – and no one has gone back. To understand how far we went forty years ago, on how little technology, consider this: Our modern smart phones have 200,000 times more power than the computers that took men to the moon. Let me restate that: Space travel can be accomplished with forty-year-old technology. At one million miles, government requires 4,188,000,000 billion cubic miles of dominance. The 1950s are considered a time of mass conformity, but they look like radical experimentation compared to the fully-scripted lives of today’s ‘successful’ people. A success ethic that addresses the animal aspects of human life while utterly ignoring its higher aspects. We are taxed on our income at national, state and even local levels. We are taxed on what we spend. We are taxed on Ponzi retirement programs. We are taxed on property we own, and on gasoline we buy, and hundreds of other things. At three million miles it is 113,076,000,000 billion cubic miles of dominance. It may be that the next generation will demand more out of life than animal gratifications. Such changes have occurred in the past. Would to God that they come again soon.#3: Our Money Is Taken from Us The taxation systems of the West are designed to rob us of every dollar we get, right up to the point where we’d be tempted to rebel. This is a science. I should add that one million miles in space is almost trivial. At the speeds used forty years ago, that’s only 38.5 hours of travel. The relics of the last moon missionWhat has been lost to us? What happens to humans themselves (and by that I mean internally) once we get to space and have a few moments to “consider the heavens”? Preliminary evidences are that humans in space think more deeply, more expansively, and more spiritually… that their consciousness opens up and expands. Consider just these passages from astronauts on the first and last moon missions. (And I have many others.) As Neil and I first stood on the surface of the moon looking back at Earth – a bright blue marble suspended in the blackness of space – the experience moved us in ways that we could not have anticipated. – Buzz Aldrin, Apollo 11 Out there on another planet, I was looking back at the Earth, or I was looking back at the other stars in the universe – science and technology could no longer explain to me what I was feeling. Not just what I was seeing, it’s what I was feeling. And I kept thinking, above all religions, there has to be a creator. It was to me like I was just sitting on a rocking chair on a Friday evening, looking back home, sitting on God’s front porch, looking back at the Earth; looking back home. It was really that simple, but it was an overpowering experience. I’m sure that viewing the world from the moon only enriched me spiritually and also gave me a new vantage point on life… Anyone who walked on the moon had such a spiritual experience, similar to it or stronger. – Gene Cernan, Apollo 17 An obscene level of advertising that replaced authentic dreams with scientifically implanted manipulations. 17th century voyages across the Atlantic took weeks, and there was no lack of paying passengers. So, there is no hope of governments getting us back to space. To do so would be to shoot themselves in the chest, and they probably understand that.#2: The Culture Has Gone Conformist Lamentations Are In Order It is tragic beyond measure that human exploration has been neutered since 1972. Sure, we’ve sent out a few probes and placed a good telescope in orbit, but we have done nothing brave, nothing bold, nothing daring. Productive humans have been delegated to mute observance as their hard-earned surplus is syphoned off to capital cities, where it is sanctimoniously poured down a sewer of cultured dependencies and endless wars. We remain locked onto this planet, not because we lack the ability to leave, but because so few of us are able to do anything about it. What we have lost can be measured only in the billions of unactivated lives. Fifty years ago humanity was shocked to realize that they could go to the stars. After untold millennia of looking to the heavens, of wondering, dreaming and mourning the impossibility, we saw that we could go to the stars. And for ten years we took our first brave steps, successfully! But after our first major step away from our crib, we were thrown back and surrounded with double-height rails. Since then, we have stagnated, and human culture has undergone a widespread rot. We watch science fictions about going to space, living in space and even fighting in space, but we have given up all hope of going ourselves… even though we did it just one generation ago. Humanity – having recently discovered the ability to expand without limit – wanders aimlessly, with no challenging goal, no elevated purpose, and no path of escape. Space travel has leapfrogged us: it was done by our fathers; we imagine that it will be done by our sons; but we dare not think that it is possible to us. They Were Men Like Us We have more than enough ability to explore space right now. The men who did so a generation ago were not supermen, regardless of how the promotions made them appear. I’ve met some of the people who did this forty years ago, including one of the men who walked on the moon. I found them to be reasonably decent and competent men (the astronaut struck me as especially capable), but I’ve known other men and women who were of equal or greater decency and competence. The fault of our earth-bound lives lies not in our abilities. The spacemen were men like ourselves. Now, please take a look at this photo: You are observing a workman building a Mercury capsule. Look at the metal work: It is fine construction, and it was advanced for its day, but there are shops in every large city in America that could do the same job, faster, cheaper, with closer tolerances. Like every other technology, metal working has massively improved over the last forty years. Now look at this Gemini launch. What in this picture is particularly hard to build? We see concrete, metal frameworks and sprinklers. None of those things are remotely hard. Even the rocket is simple by modern standards. In other words, this technology is simple to reproduce. None of it is beyond the grasp of journeyman craftsmen. Leibniz, Newton and Aldrin Originating is hard; second and third uses are not. It took brilliant men like Leibniz and Newton to invent calculus, but now, millions of schoolchildren learn it every year. It took a brilliant engineer like Buzz Aldrin to invent the technologies of space rendezvous, but there are millions of bright young men, right now, who are more than capable of using his discoveries. Again, none of this is beyond us. And, by the way, we have lots of real geniuses in our time too… it’s just that they have been forced into systems that punish them for their brilliance, rather than rewarding them, or at least just leaving them alone. Why Haven’t We Gone Back? There are several ways to answer this question. Here are the answers that I think matter most: #1: Space is Against the State’s Interest Fame for the basest, weirdest and most lurid men and women; conformity for everyone else. And so on. The people who left could never again be contained and have their money removed by force. Those cows would never be milked again. The reason I’m so sure of this is simple mathematics. When we lost the moon we lost our bearings; there was no distant star to guide us, no magnificent vision to pursue. Four decades on, we remain in a kind of stasis, mollified with streaming vanities and base satisfactions. Perhaps we should have known that this would be the result. But when shall we return to the stars? It isn’t rocket science anymore. [Editor’s Note: This article is based on research from our flagship newsletter – The Freeman’s Perspective Letter – Issue #20: “Forty Years Gone: A Lamentation.” If you liked it, consider taking a risk-free test drive. Not only will you gain immediate access to the rest of the issue, but you’ll also be able to enjoy the entire archive – more than 520 pages of research on topics of importance and inspiration to those looking for freedom in an unfree world. Plus valuable bonus reports and all new issues as well. Click here to learn more.] Paul Rosenberg FreemansPerspective.com Originally compiled for FreedomsPhoenix.com. The glorification and unlimited empowerment of the institution. At two million miles it is 33,504,000 billion cubic miles of dominance. The men who went into space knew that death was a possibility, but they valued more than just animal rewards; they wanted to excel, to touch the heavens, to expand, to become more. In the broader cultures of the West, that attitude has been suppressed and nearly lost. Space is a territory that expends exponentially (as a cube of the distance) and endlessly. The numbers look like this: 24/7 entertainment, which made billions of otherwise-productive hours worthless. As a result, we’ve had boring, washed-out decades, focused on anything but the awe-inspiring, the good, and the truly heroic. These years have been stripped of the greatest excitement, discovery and growth that have ever been possible to our species. Consider what became of the past forty years: There has been no striving, no searching, no becoming. Instead, we’ve had: At four million miles it is 268,032,000,000 billion cubic miles of dominance. If we actually held our own money, reaching space again could be done, easily, from a small percentage of our surplus. No coercion would be required, only a bit of excitement. Our current decade features no goals save bodily comfort, and no aspirations save existence and status. Underlying it all is a palette of manufactured fears that can only be salved by buying the right products or electing the right politicians. We are living through the triumph of manipulation and the disappearance of vigorous individuals. We have no money left over for things that matter.
Source:http://www.bmc.org/ Reviewed by Alina Shrourou, B.Sc. (Editor)Oct 31 2018Becoming more sensitive to pain, or pain sensitization, is an important risk factor for developing persistent knee pain in osteoarthritis (OA), according to a new study by researchers from the Université de Montréal (UdeM) School of Rehabilitation and Hôpital Maisonneuve Rosemont Research Centre (CRHMR) in collaboration with researchers at Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM). These findings have just been published in the journal Arthritis and Rheumatology.OA is a common cause of pain and altered joint function, affecting 302 million adults worldwide. It can lead to chronic disability frequently in the knee joint. Past research suggests that a number of different factors outside of structural pathology may contribute to pain experienced in patients with OA.Related StoriesAre Chronic Pain Relief Drugs for Children Effective?Arthroscopy more accurate than MRI for chondral defects of the knee, study findsYoung players may need one-year rehab time after knee surgery”Understanding the factors that contribute to the development of persistent pain is critical in improving our ability to prevent its onset and the transition to more persistent pain’, said Lisa Carlesso BSc.PT. PhD, assistant professor School of Rehabilitation UdeM and scientist CRHMR.Researchers analyzed data from a multicenter OA study that followed 852 adults (ages 50-79) with or at risk of knee OA but who were free of persistent knee pain at the beginning of the study. Sociodemographic data, pain sensitization measurements, as well as risk factors traditionally associated with knee pain such as psychological factors, widespread pain and poor sleep were collected on the participants who then were followed for development of persistent knee pain over two years.The researchers used the above risk factors and pain sensitization data to identify four distinct subgroups called pain susceptibility phenotypes (PSPs). The authors found these PSPs were primarily characterized by varying degrees of pain sensitization. The PSP with the highest degree of sensitization had the highest risk of developing persistent knee pain. Female gender, non-Caucasian race and age 65+ were significant sociodemographic predictors of being a member of the PSP with the highest degree of sensitization.The researchers believe identifying these PSPs is an important step in understanding the complex pathology of knee osteoarthritis. “Our findings suggest that therapy aimed at prevention or improvement of pain sensitization may be a novel approach to preventing persistent knee pain,” explained author Tuhina Neogi, MD, PhD, professor of medicine and epidemiology at BUSM and BU School of Public Health. “Preventing pain is crucial to improving quality of life and function in patients who suffer from OA.”
Figure 1: Visualization of network-detected regions in a glaucomatous (top row) and healthy (bottom row) eye. Credit: IBM This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. As part of a team of scientists from IBM and New York University, my colleagues and I are looking at new ways AI could be used to help ophthalmologists and optometrists further utilize eye images, and potentially help to speed the process for detecting glaucoma in images. In a recent paper, we detail a new deep learning framework that detects glaucoma directly from raw optical coherence tomographic (OCT) imaging, a method which uses light waves to take cross-section pictures of the retina. This method achieved an accuracy rate of 94 percent, without any additional segmentation or scrubbing of the data, which is usually time-consuming.Currently, glaucoma is diagnosed using a variety of tests, such as intraocular pressure measurements and visual field tests, as well as fundus and OCT imaging. OCT provides an efficient way to visualize and quantify structures in the eye, namely the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL), which changes with progression of the disease.Although this approach works well, it requires an additional process to quantify the RNFL in OCT images. These techniques also typically clean up the input data in a variety of ways, such as flipping all eyes into the same orientation (left or right) in order to reduce variability in the data to improve the performance of the classifiers. Our approach removes these additional steps, indicating that these potentially time-consuming stages are not required for the detection of glaucoma.Ultimately, when normalised by a false positive rate, in a cohort of 624 subjects (217 healthy and 432 glaucoma patients), our new approach, founded in deep learning, correctly detects glaucomatous eyes in 94 percent of cases, while previously mentioned techniques only found this in 86 percent of cases. We believe this improved accuracy is a result of eliminating errors in the automated segmentation of structures in images as well as the inclusion of regions of the image that are not currently utilised clinically for this purpose.Additionally, contrary to the current trend in AI research that uses larger and deeper networks, the network we used was a small 5-layer network because medical data is not as easily accessible due its confidential nature. This data scarcity makes the use of large networks impractical in many medical applications. Even in research, we are sometimes seeing that “less is more,” and the training of these algorithms on smaller networks allows them to run with greater efficiency.This is just one facet of our research in applying AI for the eye. In a recently announced new collaboration, IBM Research and George & Matilda (G&M) will leverage G&M’s robust data set of anonymous clinical data and imaging studies to explore methods to use deep learning models and imaging analytics to support clinicians in the identification and detection of eye disease—including glaucoma—in images. Researchers will also look to investigate the potential biomarkers of glaucoma, which could help in better understanding disease progression. Explore further Abird’s eye view for improved diagnosis Citation: Deep learning for glaucoma detection (2018, October 31) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-10-deep-glaucoma.html Provided by IBM More information: Stefan Maetschke et al. A feature agnostic approach for glaucoma detection in OCT volumes. arXiv:1807.04855 [cs.CV]. arxiv.org/abs/1807.04855v1 This story is republished courtesy of IBM Research. Read the original story here. Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness in the world, impacting approximately 2.7 million people in the U.S alone. It is a complex set of diseases and, if left untreated, can lead to blindness. It’s a particularly large issue in Australia, where only 50 percent of all people who have it are actually diagnosed and receive the treatment they need.
Credit: CC0 Public Domain Explore further Face recognition is becoming an increasingly common feature of biometric verification systems. Now, a team from India has used a multi-class support vector machine to extend the way in which such systems work to take into account a person’s age. Jayant Jagtap of Symbiosis International (Deemed) University in Pune, and Manesh Kokare of the Shri Guru Gobind Singhji Institute of Engineering and Technology, in Nanded, India, explain that human age classification has remained an important barrier to the next generation of face recognition technology but could be a useful additional parameter in security and other contexts. Provided by Inderscience More information: Jayant Jagtap et al. Human age classification using appearance and facial skin ageing features with multi-class support vector machine, International Journal of Biometrics (2018). DOI: 10.1504/IJBM.2019.096559 The team’s novel two stage age classification framework based on appearance and facial skin ageing features using a multi-class support vector machine (M-SVM) can classify, the team suggests, classify images of faces into one of seven age groups. Fundamentally, the system examines characteristics of the image coincident with facial skin textural and wrinkles and is accurate 94.45% of the time. It works well despite factors such as genetics, gender, health, life-time weather conditions, working and living environment, tobacco and alcohol use. Indeed, accuracy is greater than 98% in the first step wherein adult and non-adult faces are distinguished.”The proposed framework of age classification gives better performance than existing age classification systems,” the team reports. They add that future research will look to improve accuracy still further for use in real-time applications. This will be done through the development of an algorithm for extracting facial skin ageing features and through the design of an efficient age classifier, the team concludes. Citation: The seven ages of face recognition (2019, January 10) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-01-ages-recognition.html How old does your computer think you are? Journal information: International Journal of Biometrics This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Surveillance capitalism enters the equationFramed this way, it becomes clear why telling parents to stop blogging or posting about their children online is a challenging proposition. Media accounting is central to people’s social lives, and it’s been happening for a long time.But the fact that parents are doing it on blogs and social media does raise unique issues. Family album photos don’t transmit digital data and become visible only when you decide to show them to someone, whereas those Instagram pictures sit on servers owned by Facebook and are visible to anyone who scrolls through your profile.Children’s opinions matter, and if a child vehemently opposes sharenting, parents could always consider using paper diaries or physical photo albums. Parents can take other steps to manage their children’s privacy, such as using a pseudonym for their child and giving their child veto power over content.However, debates about privacy and sharenting often focus on a parent’s followers or friends seeing the content. They tend to ignore what corporations do with that data. Social media didn’t cause parents to engage in media accounting, but it has profoundly altered the terms by which they do so. Unlike the diary entries, photo albums and home videos of yore, blog posts, Instagram photos and YouTube videos reside in platforms owned by corporations and can be made visible to far more people than most parents realize or expect.The problem is less about parents and more about social media platforms. These platforms increasingly operate according to an economic logic that business scholar Shoshana Zuboff calls “surveillance capitalism.” They produce goods and services designed to extract enormous amounts of data from individuals, mine that data for patterns, and use it to influence people’s behavior.It doesn’t have to be this way. In her book on media accounting, Humphreys mentions that in its early days, Kodak exclusively developed its customers’ film. “While Kodak processed millions of customer photos,” Humphreys writes, “they did not share that information with advertisers in exchange for access to their customers. … In other words, Kodak did not commodify its users.” Social media platforms do just that. Sharenting tells them what your child looks like, when she was born, what she likes to do, when she hits her developmental milestones and more. These platforms pursue a business model predicated on knowing users – perhaps more deeply than they know themselves – and using that knowledge to their own ends. Against this backdrop, the concern is less that parents talk about their kids online and more that the places where parents spend time online are owned by companies who want access to every corner of our lives.In my view, that’s the privacy problem that needs fixing. One commentor criticized parents like the essay’s author for having “turned their family’s daily dramas into content.” Another said the woman’s essay surfaces a “nagging – and loaded – question among parents in the age of Instagram. … Are our present social media posts going to mortify our kids in the future?”These questions are valid, and I’ve published research about the need for parents to steward their children’s privacy online. I agree with critics who accuse the woman of being tone-deaf to her child’s concerns. However, I believe the broader criticism of parents and their social media behavior is misplaced.I’ve been studying this topic – sometimes called “sharenting” – for six years. Too often, public discourse pits parents against children. Parents, critics say, are being narcissistic by blogging about their kids and posting their photos on Facebook and Instagram; they’re willing to invade their child’s privacy in exchange for attention and likes from their friends. So the story goes. But this parent-versus-child framing obscures a bigger problem: the economic logic of social media platforms that exploit users for profit.A natural impulseDespite the heated responses sharenting can evoke, it’s nothing new. For centuries, people have recorded daily minutiae in diaries and scrapbooks. Products like baby books explicitly invite parents to log information about their children. Communication scholar Lee Humphreys sees the impulse parents feel to document and share information about their kids as a form of “media accounting.” Throughout their lives, people occupy many roles – child, spouse, parent, friend, colleague. Humphreys argues that one way to perform these roles is by documenting them. Looking back on these traces can help people shape a sense of self, construct a coherent life story and feel connected to others. To share photographs of your kids is to be human. Credit: pxhere If you’ve ever thumbed through an old yearbook, a grandparent’s travel photos or a historical figure’s diary, you’ve looked at media accounts. Same if you’ve scrolled through a blog’s archives or your Facebook Timeline. Social media may be fairly new, but the act of recording everyday life is age-old.Writing about family life online can help parents express themselves creatively and connect with other parents. Media accounting can also help people make sense of their identities as a parent. Being a parent – and seeing yourself as a parent – involves talking and writing about your children. Citation: The real problem with posting about your kids online (2019, February 4) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-02-real-problem-kids-online.html Explore further Provided by The Conversation Research finds kids have strong opinions about what parents post about them online This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. In a recent essay published in The Washington Post, a mother explained her decision to continue writing essays and blog posts about her daughter even after the girl had protested. The woman said that while she felt bad, she was “not done exploring my motherhood in my writing.” This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article. ‘Say cheese so I can show all my friends how cute you are – and unwittingly show corporations your age, race and gender!’ Credit: Fancy Studio/Shutterstock.com
Tam Hunt, Affiliate Guest in Psychology, University of California, Santa Barbara This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.by Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksYou May LikeVikings: Free Online GamePlay this for 1 minute and see why everyone is addictedVikings: Free Online GameUndoGundry MD SupplementsTop Cardiologist: This One Thing Will Properly Flush Out Your BowelsGundry MD SupplementsUndoMarie Claire | HanacureMeet The Beauty Equivalent To TIME’s Person Of The Year AwardMarie Claire | HanacureUndoDr. Marty Nature's Feast Freeze-Dried RAW Cat Food3 Signs Something’s Wrong Inside Your Cat’s BodyDr. Marty Nature’s Feast Freeze-Dried RAW Cat FoodUndoTruthFinder People Search SubscriptionOne Thing All Liars Have in Common, Brace YourselfTruthFinder People Search SubscriptionUndoUltimate Pet NutritionIf Your Indoor Cat Vomits (Do This Every Day)Ultimate Pet NutritionUndo How can you know that any animal, other human beings, or anything that seems conscious, isn’t just faking it? Does it enjoy an internal subjective experience, complete with sensations and emotions like hunger, joy, or sadness? After all, the only consciousness you can know with certainty is your own. Everything else is inference. The nature of consciousness makes it by necessity a wholly private affair. These questions are more than philosophical. As intelligent digital assistants, self-driving cars and other robots start to proliferate, are these AIs actually conscious or just seem like it? Or what about patients in comas — how can doctors know with any certainty what kind of consciousness is or is not present, and prescribe treatment accordingly? In my work, often with with psychologist Jonathan Schooler at the University of California, Santa Barbara, we’re developing a framework for thinking about the many different ways to possibly test for the presence of consciousness.These Sharks Were Too Busy to Notice a Bigger Predator Watching ThemThe unexpected twist at the end of this feeding frenzy delighted scientists.Credit: NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research, Windows to the Deep 2019Your Recommended PlaylistVolume 0%Press shift question mark to access a list of keyboard shortcutsKeyboard Shortcutsplay/pauseincrease volumedecrease volumeseek forwardsseek backwardstoggle captionstoggle fullscreenmute/unmuteseek to %SPACE↑↓→←cfm0-9接下来播放Headbutting Tiny Worms Are Really, Really Loud00:35关闭选项Automated Captions – en-US facebook twitter 发邮件 reddit 链接https://www.livescience.com/65874-tests-for-consciousness.html?jwsource=cl已复制直播00:0002:2802:28 There is a small but growing field looking at how to assess the presence and even quantity of consciousness in various entities. I’ve divided possible tests into three broad categories that I call the measurable correlates of consciousness. You can look for brain activity that occurs at the same time as reported subjective states. Or you can look for physical actions that seem to be accompanied by subjective states. Finally, you can look for the products of consciousness, like artwork or music, or this article I’ve written, that can be separated from the entity that created them to infer the presence — or not — of consciousness. Neural correlates of consciousness Over the last two decades, scientists have proposed various ways to probe cognition and consciousness in unresponsive patients. In such cases, there aren’t any behaviors to observe or any creative products to assess. You can check for the neural correlates of consciousness, though. What’s physically going on in the brain? Neuroimaging tools such as EEG, MEG, fMRI and transcranial magnetic stimulation (each with their own strengths and weaknesses), are able to provide information on activity happening within the brain even in coma and vegetative patients. Cognitive neuroscientist Stanislas Dehaene has identified what he calls four signatures of consciousness — specific aspects of brain activity he deems necessary for normal consciousness. He focuses on what’s known as the “P3 wave” in the dorsolateral cortex — the part of the brain behind the top of your forehead — because it seems to correlate most reliably with normal conscious states. He also focuses on long-range synchronized electric fields between different parts of the brain as another key signature of consciousness. In tests which look for these signals in vegetative and minimally conscious patients, Dehaene and his colleagues have successfully predicted which patients are most likely to regain more normal states of consciousness. Sid Kouider, another cognitive neuroscientist, has examined infants in order to assess the likelihood that very young babies are conscious. He and his team looked for specific neural signatures that go along with subjective experience in adults. They looked specifically for a certain type of brain waves, similar to the P3 wave Dehaene focuses on, that are reliable indicators of consciousness in adults. They found clear analogs of the P3 wave in the brains of babies as young as five months old. Kouider concludes — unsurprisingly — that even young babies are very likely conscious in various complex ways, such as recognizing faces. Behavioral correlates of consciousness When considering potentially conscious entities that can’t communicate directly, and that won’t allow neuroscientific measurement tools on their head (if they even have heads), it’s possible to consider physical behaviors as clues for the presence and type of consciousness. You know that a massive range of human behaviors are accompanied by conscious experience. So when you see similar behaviors in other animals or even non-animals, can you reasonably infer the presence of consciousness? For example, are cats conscious? Their brain architecture is a little different than humans’. They have very minimal prefrontal cortex, which some scientists think is the center of many higher-order activities of the human brain. But is a prefrontal cortex necessary for consciousness? Cat behavior is complex and pretty easy to map onto human behavior in many ways. Cats purr, flex their toes and snuggle when petted, in similar ways to people demonstrating pleasure when physically stimulated — minus the purrs, of course. They meow loudly for food when hungry and stop meowing when fed. They demonstrate curiosity or fear about other cats or humans with various types of body language. These and many other easily observable behaviors add up to convincing evidence for most people that cats are indeed conscious and have rich emotional lives. You can imagine looking for other familiar behaviors in a rat, or an ant or a plant — if you see things close enough to what you’d expect in conscious humans, you may credit the observed creature with a certain type of consciousness. Creative correlates of consciousness If, for whatever reason, you can’t examine neural or behavioral correlates of consciousness, maybe you can look to creative outputs for clues that would indicate consciousness. For example, when examining ancient megalithic structures such as Stonehenge, or cave paintings created as far back as 65,000 years ago, is it reasonable to assume that their creators were conscious in ways similar to us? Most people would likely say yes. You know from experience that it would take high intelligence and consciousness to produce such items today, so reasonably conclude that our ancient ancestors had similar levels of consciousness. What if explorers find obviously unnatural artifacts on Mars or elsewhere in the solar system? It will depend on the artifacts in question, but if astronauts were to find anything remotely similar to human dwellings or machinery that was clearly not human in origin, it would be reasonable to infer that the creators of these artifacts were also conscious. Closer to home, artificial intelligence has produced some pretty impressive art — impressive enough to fetch over US$400,000 in a recent art auction. At what point do reasonable people conclude that creating art requires consciousness? Researchers could conduct a kind of “artistic Turing Test”: ask study participants to consider various artworks and say which ones they conclude were probably created by a human. If AI artwork consistently fools people into thinking it was made by a person, is that good evidence to conclude that the AI is at least in some ways conscious? So far AI aren’t convincing most observers, but it’s reasonable to expect that they will be able to in the future. Where’s my ‘consciousness-ometer’? Can anyone get a definitive answer about the presence of consciousness, and how much? Unfortunately, the answer to both questions is no. There is not yet a “consciousness-ometer,” but various researchers, including Dehaene, have some ideas. Neuroscientist Giulio Tononi and his colleagues like Christof Koch focus on what they call “integrated information” as a measure of consciousness. This theory suggests that anything that integrates at least one bit of information has at least a tiny amount of consciousness. A light diode, for example, contains just one bit of information and thus has a very limited type of consciousness. With just two possible states, on or off, however, it’s a rather uninteresting kind of consciousness. In my work, my collaborators and I share this “panpsychist” foundation. We accept as a working hypothesis that any physical system has some associated consciousness, however small it may be in the vast majority of cases. Rather than integrated information as the key measure of consciousness, however, we focus on resonance and synchronization and the degree to which parts of a whole resonate at the same or similar frequencies. Resonance in the case of the human brain generally means shared electric field oscillation rates, such as gamma band synchrony (40-120 Hertz). Our consciousness-ometer would then look at the degree of shared resonance and resulting information flows as the measure of consciousness. Humans and other mammals enjoy a particularly rich kind of consciousness, because there are many levels of pervasive shared synchronization throughout the brain, nervous system and body. Tests for consciousness are still in their infancy. But this field of study is undergoing a renaissance because the study of consciousness more generally has finally become a respectable scientific pursuit. Before too long it may be possible to measure just how much consciousness is present in various entities — including in you and me. [Deep knowledge, daily. Sign up for The Conversation’s newsletter. ]