College of the Redwoods will play in front of its home fans for the first time in 2019 today when it welcomes Gavilan College to Community Stadium for a 1 p.m. kickoff.Redwoods (0-1) fell 51-34 in its opener a week ago on the road at Monterrey Peninsula College on Sept. 7.Redwoods’ offense unit showed its ability to rack up yards under the command of quarterback Brody Lucero in the loss.The red-shirt freshman passed for 410 yards and five touchdowns in the loss to go along with two …
A science writer wrote a semi-amusing account on how to become a fossil. In so doing, he pointed out that fossilization is a very rare fate for most organisms.Writing for National Geographic, freelance science writer and evolutionist Brian Switek quipped, “Pick your burial spot carefully if you want future paleontologists to find you.” For those needing “Tips on How to Become a Fossil,” this article is for you. (First tip is not to use a coffin.)Switek pondered this question when finding a footprint in a national park and wondering, “When I die, will I leave any traces behind in the fossil record?” The chances of being preserved are slim, considering the combination of accidents that have to occur and hazards to be avoided. (Note: the study of fossilization processes is called taphonomy.) Here are your choices, summarized from the article:Sedimentary rock: get buried quickly. “The sooner I can be buried by sediment and kept safe from the various organisms that decay a body after death, the better.” Even that, though, won’t prevent the “ecological recyclers” (bacteria, fungi, burrowing insects, plant roots) from erasing all memory of your existence. And if you survive them, your traces could be scattered by floods or other geological forces.The deep blue sea: prepare to be fish food. “After sharks and crabs had their fill, my bones might become home for bone-eating snot-flower worms that rely on the skeletons of whales and other benthic bonanzas to carry out their peculiar life cycles.” Don’t count on recognizable remains.Desert decay: prepare to be insect food. “My drying corpse might become home to beetles and other insects that burrow in bones, their circuitous pathways permanently recorded in my skeleton.” Unless buried quickly though, bones decay in the desert heat.Volcanic ash: good luck. Fine-grained volcanic ash has preserved some of the best fossils, like those in China. Switek jokes that his favorite T-shirt would not be fossilized, though. It says, “Future Transitional Fossil.“Muck: good luck. The exquisite detail in Archaeopteryx came from its burial in oxygen-depleted muck from an ancient lagoon, Switek says.His last paragraph underscores the rarity of fossilization of any animal:But even a perfect burial doesn’t guarantee discovery. In the millions of years of Earth history that lie ahead, oceans and mountains will rise and fall, and the continents will shift. Should my remains actually become a part of the fossil record, they may rest in a place wholly inaccessible to any future explorers. Even if I come to my final rest at an accessible spot on the surface, erosion might expose and destroy what’s left of me. Or there may not be any future explorers to find me. This is why the discovery of any fossil is a joyous occasion. In the face of so much destructive potential, a fragment of the past has survived and at long last been found.It’s interesting to ponder whether the late Harry Truman (not the President, but the lodge owner at Spirit Lake, Mt. St. Helens) became fossilized after being buried instantly in volcanic ash on May 18, 1980. Even if he did, the chances of ever finding his remains are slim to none.It was nice of Brian to point out how rare fossilization is. Very special conditions are required. Those conditions were ideal during the Genesis Flood – an explanation that Switek (as evolutionary moyboy) is guaranteed to mock. He doesn’t have to wait to become a “future transitional form” (where is his company?). According to God’s word, because he refuses to acknowledge the clear evidence for creation all around him, he is already a transitional form between Homo sapiens and Homo reprobatus, most likely (because of evident exercise of his brain), at stage 2, “Professing to be wise, they became fools” (Romans 1:22). (Visited 119 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Last Saturday, we looked at news about Saturn and its rings. This Saturday we look at news about Saturn’s moons.The planet Saturn just surpassed Jupiter in number of moons. Twenty more moons were discovered in Cassini data, Science Daily says, bringing the total to 82, compared to Jupiter’s 79. NASA is calling on the public to help give them names. But actually, Saturn has so many moons, they could never be counted. Within the rings are “propeller” moons that, while not obvious, leave evidence of their existence in propeller-shaped wakes consisting of disturbed ring particles. And actually, every ring particle is a moon orbiting Saturn, some as large as houses, some mere specks of dust. Here we concentrate on two of the most noteworthy moons of Saturn: Titan and Enceladus.Titan’s theoretical interior (NASA).Titan NewsLakes on Saturn’s moon Titan are explosion craters, new models suggest (Science Daily). Some of the small polar lakes on Titan have steep rims hundreds of feet high. A new model that might account for them considers them craters where frozen nitrogen exploded upward, contributing to Titan’s nitrogen-rich atmosphere. In order to keep Titan billions of years old when they know the atmosphere cannot be sustained that long, some planetary scientists like Jonathan Lunine (whose prediction of a global ethane ocean was falsified by Cassini) are now envisioning “cycles” —Over the last half-billion or billion years on Titan, methane in its atmosphere has acted as a greenhouse gas, keeping the moon relatively warm — although still cold by Earth standards. Scientists have long believed that the moon has gone through epochs of cooling and warming, as methane is depleted by solar-driven chemistry and then resupplied.This, however, amounts to special pleading, and could not work. By now (if the current atmosphere were at most 10 million to 100 million years old, as they believe), there would have been 45 to 450 cycles of methane depletion and resupply over the assumed age of the solar system. We know, however, that the methane is subject to the solar wind 20% of Titan’s orbit. Nothing is going to resupply it. And the ethane should have formed that global ocean over billions of years, as Lunine had predicted; it would be going nowhere, so where is it?Cassini explores ring-like formations around Titan’s lakes (European Space Agency, via Phys.org). Cassini found “around 650 lakes and seas in the polar regions of Titan—300 of which are at least partially filled with a liquid mix of methane and ethane.” Some of the lakes have steep-walled rims, as noted above, and some have broken rims. But others “are surrounded by ramparts: ring-shaped mounds that extend for tens of km from a lake’s shoreline” that completely enclose the liquid. How did these form? So far they cannot tell if the ramparts are “old” or “young.” They may have to wait for the next mission, named Dragonfly, to look from ground level instead of from orbit.‘Bathtub rings’ around Titan’s lakes might be made of alien crystals (Science Daily). Cue the Twilight Zone music: the rims of Titan’s lakes “might be encrusted with strange, unearthly minerals, according to new research being presented here.” Once again, though, confirmation of these features, which resemble rings of precipitated salt around salty lakes on Earth, will await more data from the next mission. They might consist of butane, acetylene and benzene, which are known to precipitate in Titan’s atmosphere. These alien crystals, though, appear to form snowflakes with ethane molecules captured inside.Flying on Saturn’s moon Titan: what we could discover with NASA’s new Dragonfly mission (The Conversation). Think of what scientists could see with a drone flying around Titan above the surface, instead of from orbit. That’s the plan for a follow-up visit to Titan. The mission is named Dragonfly. To promote it, Christian Schroeder (U of Stirling) has learned his propaganda well. Insert the L-word life to trigger public drooling.Flying on other worlds is the next leap in the exploration of our solar system. The Mars Helicopter will piggyback on the NASA Mars 2020 rover mission to demonstrate the technology. But this is only the start. The real prize will be the Dragonfly mission in 2026, sending a drone to Saturn’s largest moon, Titan – as just announced by NASA.For a craft to become airborne, it needs air or, more generally, an atmosphere. Only a handful of objects in our solar system fit that bill. Titan boasts an atmosphere thicker than Earth’s, which has shrouded this world in mystery for a long time. Studies have shown Titan may be able to host primitive lifeforms and is the ideal place to study how life may have arisen on our own planet.SMU’s ‘Titans in a Jar’ could answer key questions ahead of NASA’s space exploration (Southern Methodist University). This university long ago went from “Methodist” in the tradition of John Wesley to “Methodological Naturalist” in the atheist sense. As such, its research department will spend its $195,000 NASA grant looking for evidence of a naturalistic origin of life.Before the rotorcraft lands on Titan, chemists from SMU will be recreating the conditions on Titan in multiple glass cylinders — each the size of a needle top — so they can learn about what kind of chemical structures could form on Titan’s surface. The knowledge on these structures can ultimately help assess the possibility of life on Titan — whether in the past, present or future.Saturn’s moon Enceladus with “Tiger Stripes” fissures where geysers eruptEnceladusSaturn’s Icy Moon Enceladus Is Likely the ‘Perfect Age’ to Harbor Life (Live Science). Astrobiological fervor about Titan is only exceeded by the fervor of looking for life on Enceladus. As we saw last week, the evolutionary moyboys that control planetary science these days need to keep these moons old in order for life to have time to emerge by chance (as if time helps). They realize that just a few tens or hundreds of millions of years is far too short for that. One way they keep them old is just to declare them old, hoping nobody will notice that it’s an evolution-based assumption, not a measurable fact.Below the ice-covered surface of Saturn’s moon Enceladus hides a vast ocean.This sprawling ocean is likely 1 billion years old, which means it’s the perfect age to harbor life, said Marc Neveu, a research scientist at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center last Monday (June 24) during a talk at the 2019 Astrobiology Science Conference.In order to appear sciency, the chief wizard Neveu ran some computer simulations with contrived parameters to make Enceladus look just old enough for the time he thinks would be needed for the miracle of life to happen, if you had carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen available (Enceladus has lots of water ice, but very little of anything else). Yet Neveu has to admit that it’s rather surprising Enceladus would have an ocean left after all this time.One of Cassini’s major discoveries was that Enceladus had an ocean filled with hydrothermal vents. “It’s very surprising to see an ocean today,” Neveu told Live Science after the talk. “It’s a very tiny moon and, in general, you expect tiny things to not be very active [but rather] like a dead block of rock and ice.”Neveu needs the moon to be the right age. So he imagines it, guided by evolutionary magic.If the ocean is too young – for example, only a couple of million years old – there probably wouldn’t have been enough time to mix those ingredients together to create life, he said. What’s more, that’s not enough time for little sparks of life to spread enough for us Earthlings to detect them.On the other hand, if the ocean is too old, it’s as if the planet’s “battery” is running out of juice; the chemical reactions needed to sustain life might stop, Neveu said.In this world, the elements that needed to dissolve would have dissolved, all the minerals needed to form would have formed, he said. The moon would’ve then reached an equilibrium, meaning that the reactions to sustain life wouldn’t take place.That means Enceladus’ ocean may be the perfect age to harbor life.How he got to that non-sequitur isn’t clear. In the meantime, his computer simulations continue running.Organic Compounds Found in Plumes of Saturn’s Icy Moon Enceladus (Space.com). Ready to supply some building blocks of life for the astrobiologists, this article triumphantly announces “organic molecules” in the plumes of Enceladus, but doesn’t say what they are. (Note: many deadly poisons are “organic molecules”). It only teases readers that “Similar compounds on Earth take part in the chemical reactions that form amino acids, which are the organic compounds that combine to form proteins and are essential to life as we know it.” Were any of these things found? No.Saturn’s moon Enceladus is having a snowball fight with other moons (New Scientist). Now here’s a finding that should put the moyboys into clinical depression. The geysers of Enceladus are spray-painting other moons white with icy snow. The amount of snow is not trivial, either:Look how tiny this moon is!Alice Le Gall at the University of Paris-Saclay in France and her colleagues analysed these radar observations and found that three of the moons, Mimas, Enceladus and Tethys, seem to be twice as bright as we previously thought. They presented their work this week at at a joint meeting of the European Planetary Science Congress and the Division for Planetary Sciences in Geneva, Switzerland.That can be partly explained by Enceladus: it has huge geysers that spew water from its subsurface ocean into space, which then freezes and snows down on the nearby moons and Enceladus’ surface. Le Gall and her colleagues calculated that this layer of ice and snow should be at least a few tens of centimetres thick.“Now we know that the snow is actually accumulating, it’s not just a thin veneer but a much thicker layer of water ice,” Le Gall says.Could that go on for billions of years? Enceladus, remember, also builds a huge E-ring around Saturn, but this tiny moon is only about the diameter of Washington State. Neveu in the previous article said that this small moon should be like a dead block of rock and ice after all this time. As usual, the scientists completely ignore the age implications of this discovery. Spray cans give out after a while of continuous spraying.Diagram of Saturn’s E-ring created by EnceladusWhy are the planetary scientists ignoring this? They will never admit defeat. Charlie & Charlie* are too important in their pantheon to disgrace. *Lyell, Darwin (Visited 333 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
(Visited 303 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0 Translating Darwinese primarily involves taking out the assumptions and assertions and seeing if anything is left.If, like the late Phillip Johnson argued, Darwinian evolution is naturalistic philosophy masquerading as science, then it follows that Darwinian ‘science’ is fake science. It may include some tangible objects, like fossils or genes, but it will be wrapped in rhetoric intended to promote naturalism. Consequently, a perceptive reader needs to learn how to translate Darwinese. The mystical language of Darwinese makes it seem as if observational data supports evolution, when it’s really the other way around; naturalism colors the data. A successful Darwinese translator is always focusing on the actual evidence. One must filter out the assumptions and assertions to see what the data are actually indicating. Here we teach by example.Before starting, one must vaccinate oneself against bluffing, intimidation and irrelevant details. A Darwinese article, for instance, is often dressed up with attractive photos, clean website designs, pictures of smiling Darwinists, and artwork supporting the evolutionary narrative. All of that must be ignored. It has nothing to do with the science. It is irrelevant. The Darwinese translator must keep a laser-sharp focus on the evidence.Stick to the EvidenceWas early stick insect evolution triggered by birds and mammals? (University of Göttingen). Most of the first paragraph of this press release simply states observable evidence. Then the writer inserts the word “phylogeny” — an evolutionary word to watch out for.Stick and leaf insects are a diverse and strikingly bizarre group of insects with a world-wide distribution, which are more common in tropical and subtropical areas. They are famous for their impressively large body size, compared to other insects, and their remarkable ability to camouflage themselves as twigs, leaves or bark in order to hide from potential predators. A team of international researchers led by the University of Göttingen has now generated the first phylogenomic tree of these insects.For animals below the rank of family, Michael Behe shows in his book Darwin Devolves, one can expect variability in genera and species. Many creationists accept this view as well. The stick insects belong to Phasmatodea, an order, the taxon above the level of family. So if the writer is trying to link all the families within Phasmatodea into a tree of common descent, the translator needs to be on guard. Does the evidence support it? The research team at University of Gottingen examined 2,000 genes for 38 species of globally-distributed stick insects. Watch what happened:The most surprising finding is that the relationships between the early emerging groups of stick and leaf insects largely disprove the earlier assumptions. In fact, the genealogy reflects more the geographic distribution than the anatomical similarity of the animals. The authors revealed a New World lineage of purely North and South American species and a group of Old World origin that comprises species from Africa to New Zealand.In short, there was no clear phylogenetic picture. The genes looked similar, but the animals did not. When new evolutionary stories disprove old evolutionary stories, probably both stories are wrong. Next, the team ramps up the perhapsimaybecouldness index to visualize moyboy ages:The age estimation of the phylogenetic tree suggests that most of the old lineages emerged after the dinosaurs became extinct 66 million years ago. Thus, the remarkable camouflage of stick and leaf insects most probably evolved afterwards as adaptation against predatory mammals and birds.We have an emergence-y. The team just leaped into fantasyland, saying these remarkable animals “emerged” somehow long, long ago. Do they have fossil evidence for this? No; stick insect fossils are rare. This is pure Darwinian speculation.To translate the article into science, the translator must filter out the Darwinese. The result should include the first paragraph up to the sentence about predators, and stop. It might mention the 2,000 genes of 38 species examined, and tabulate the similarities and differences, but leave it there. Science has no tolerance for “emergence” and speculations about what “might” have happened over millions of Darwin Years.Spitting for DarwinA secret in saliva: Food and germs helped humans evolve into unique member of great apes (University of Buffalo). The proposition needing translation from Darwinese goes like this:Two million years of eating meat and cooked food may have helped humans shift further from other great apes on the evolutionary tree. The evidence is in our saliva, according to new research from the University at Buffalo.After putting this press release through the Darwinese translator, there won’t be much left but a bucket of warm spit. These Darwinians are trying to buffalo readers into thinking you can use divination on saliva from apes and humans and perceive a story of evolution, visualizing humans losing their hair and learning to cook.Human saliva is unique in that it is waterier and contains a different mix of proteins. The findings came as a big surprise to the researchers, since humans are known to be genetically close relatives of the great apes, chimpanzees and gorillas.The evolutionary story is lubricated with perhapses and maybes, ending with futureware: “The study’s findings provide a necessary basis for future studies to assess whether the differences in human salivary proteins were caused by natural selection.” In other words, they don’t even know that natural selection had anything to do with spit. It’s illogical to think it might have anyway; the Stuff Happens Law doesn’t ’cause’ anything.The only evidence that can be salvaged from this article involves design in our salivary glands and the complex proteins that help us digest our food. After translation from Darwinese into science, therefore, the article will be very short.Darwinizing DarwinismAn evolution in the understanding of evolution (University of Virginia Engineering). The heroine of this article thinks that evolution needs evolution itself, in order to be understood. Kristen Naegle spent a lot of time running divination studies on proteins to praise Darwin, but all for naught. After running her work through the Darwinese translator, there would be precious little left. She and her student Roman Sloutsky try to impress readers with their wizardry. Such divination is not for laymen, she says. In order to justify the exercise, she tries to convince the peasants that it could cure cancer.Reconstructing evolutionary branches is tricky, especially when many species share a similar type of protein that might have evolved to perform somewhat different functions. Mathematically, the problem quickly becomes very big, but discovering the implications of this protein evolution could lead to a better understanding of how our bodies deal with cancer and other diseases.First of all, she incorrectly thinks that proteins, those amazingly sophisticated and sequence-specific molecular machines, are products of evolution. That’s a show stopper right there. Second, it’s a pipe dream to think that Darwinism is going to help understand or cure cancer. A Darwinist believes that cancer is one of those things that just happens. Third, the work leaves nothing accomplished for Darwin worship. It’s all futureware.Naegle made one statement that could be a redeeming feature, and worth saving in the translated article. “Most models of protein evolution in use today are probably wrong,” she said.Including hers.With a little practice, you, too, could become a skilled Darwinese translator.
zoomIllustration. Image Courtesy: Pixabay under CC0 Creative Commons license There should be more accuracy and transparency in declaration of cargo to shipping companies, Diego Aponte, President and CEO of Switzerland-based MSC Group said.“It is imperative that shipping companies are well informed on what is being transported in containers in order to safely manage dangerous or potentially dangerous cargoes. The public may assume the shipping line is at fault – it is our logo on the ship – but many of the tragedies that occur in our sector are down to incorrectly declared cargo,” Aponte said in the company’s Sustainability Report for 2017.In September 2018, New York District Court said that MSC was not liable for the explosion and losses related to the MSC Flaminia fire from July 2012 that claimed the lives of three crew members and destroyed thousands of cargo containers.Instead, Deltech, the manufacturer of the chemical transported aboard the ship, and Stolt Tank Containers B.V. (Stolt), responsible for trucking the chemical,were found responsible for not informing MSC of the dangers related to the storing of the chemical that eventually led to the incident.“And where there have been accidents at sea, we have always taken all necessary actions and moved promptly to rectify the situation to limit environmental damage and protect lives. No amount of technological progress or digitalisation, it seems, can help fix this relatively simple problem in our industry,” Aponte added.According to the report, in 2017 MSC achieved an 11% reduction in CO2 per tons of cargo moved on a per mile basis, compared to 2015.The reduction was ascribed to a comprehensive fleet retrofitting program, optimisation of bulbous bow and propellers, ballast water management, as well as installation of scrubbers.The company’s overall climate action strategy involves an investment of approximately USD 1.5 billion.“This enormous financial commitment was made possible by MSC’s growing and stable economic performance as well as by the continuous support of key financial institutions,” MSC said.Commenting on its path toward achieving compliance with the sulphur cap, MSC has been exploring the viability of three key solutions: scrubbers, LNG and low sulphur fuel.“Based on current forecasts and considering the size of our fleet, there is a strong business and environmental case for retrofitting our ships with Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems (ECGS). The systems are costly and complex to install, however, with drydock, manufacturing and installation capacity all being potential limiting factors,” MSC explained.As for LNG, MSC pointed to the shortage of global bunkering infrastructure, especially for bigger ships, while numerous concerns remain with regard to the quality, availability and reliability of new fuel blends.“Ultra Low Sulphur Fuel Oil (ULSFO) plays a significant role in our current fuel mix and we will continue to monitor developments,” MSC added.