The innermost large moon of Jupiter, Io is the most volcanically active body in the solar system. About the size of our moon but no more than a speck of light in small telescopes, it caused a sensation when Galileo first glimpsed it and the other three major satellites of Jupiter in 1610. Back then, it upset tradition about the hierarchy of the heavens; today, it is upsetting tradition about the age and composition of planetary bodies. The volcanos were first observed by the Voyagers in 1979, and have been monitored with earth instruments since then, but were most clearly and dramatically revealed by the Galileo spacecraft between 1995 and 2003. Now that its seven-year orbital tour of the Jupiter system is history, planetary scientists are trying to come to grips with the startling findings from all four large moons. The May issue of Icarus is devoted to the puzzles of Io, whose volcanos dwarf those on earth. “Io After Galileo” provides a status report, a state of the moon address, before it’s off to work they go for more data mining and problem solving. Most of the articles are descriptive of the dramatic and colorful volcanos seen in the photographic images: Tupan Patera, a lava lake 47 miles across and half a mile deep; Tvashtar Catena, a chain of craters that displayed a 240-mile-high plume and 30-mile-long fire fountain; Thor, an eruption that reached 310 miles high; Amirami, the largest lava flow in the solar system; mountains towering up to 36,000 feet (Everest is 29,000); and much more. The fact that such activity could exist on a small moon that should be mostly frozen by now is calling into question traditional theories about the dynamics of planetary interiors. Io’s lavas, for instance, are generally much hotter than the basaltic lavas on earth. It appears they contain heavy elements like iron and magnesium (called ultramafic lavas). Theory demands that the heavy elements sink into the interior; how can these heavy elements erupt out onto the surface? What drives the incessant heat flow that is as active at the poles as at the equator, and shows no cooling down during the night? The first-order explanation is that Io is tidally pumped by its orbital resonance between Jupiter and Europa. Like a rubber ball repeatedly squeezed, Io’s tides generate heat and that heat has to come out. Volcanic activity was actually predicted on this principle shortly before Voyager 1 arrived. The problem is that there is more heat flow – by an order of magnitude – than most models of tidal flexing predict. Veeder, Matson, Johnson, Davies and Blaney1 have made the problem worse in their paper by recalculating the heat flow from thermal anomalies and adding in the extra amount detected from polar sources, arriving at a weighted average of 2.5 watts per square meter – “well above that predicted by most theories of tidal dissipation in Jupiter and Io.” Considering all the heat emitted by cooling lavas over the entire surface, Matson in an earlier paper had set an upper bound of 13.5 watts per square meter. This is nearly five times the heat coming out of Yellowstone’s thermal basins. The final paper by Keszthelyi, Jaeger, Turtle, Milazzo and Radebaugh2 is entitled “A post-Galileo view of Io’s interior.” In proposing their “mushy magma ocean” model, in which the interior has no solid core but is mushy all way through, they seem to be meekly standing up with bulls-eyes painted on their backs, waiting for the inevitable criticisms: how can the tall mountains exist? How does the model prevent runaway melting? How do you stop the magma from escaping too fast? How do you prevent differentiation? More complex models will be required, they meekly admit, and “Such future work may show that the mushy magma ocean model will need to be further refined, or even rejected.” They point to previous critiques: “ Stevenson (2002) predicts that a mush zone >20 km deep would be unstable over geologic timescales. Another issue is that, if the temperature of the mantle were to change significantly on a time scale of less than 106 [one million] years, then our model for stresses in the lithosphere would be inaccurate (McKinnon et al., 2001).” Hey, it’s only a model, a “useful starting point for future discussions.” So Io, it’s off to work we go.1Glenn J. Veeder, Dennis L. Matson, Torrence V. Johnson, Ashley G. Davies and Diana L. Blaney, “The polar contribution to the heat flow of Io,” Icarus Volume 169, Issue 1, May 2004, Pages 264-270, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2003.11.016.2Laszlo Keszthelyi, Windy L. Jaeger, Elizabeth P. Turtle, Moses Milazzo and Jani Radebaugh, “A post-Galileo view of Io’s interior,” Icarus Volume 169, Issue 1, May 2004, Pages 271-286; doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2004.01.005.One model they never seem to consider is that Io might not be as old as they assume. Did you catch the phrase “geologic timescales”? That’s code for 4.6 billion years. If the model does not fit “geologic timescales” then the model must be tweaked till it does. 4.6 billion years is the golden parameter, the figure that must not be altered, because Darwinian evolution depends on it. Io might be considered just a special case if it were alone in displaying recent surface activity. Actually, most of the moons in the solar system possess young-looking features that defy long ages. Europa may be gushing out water even today, Ganymede indicates recent cryovolcanism against expectations and has a global magnetic field, and Callisto shows signs of erosion and has an induced magnetic field. Tidal flexing is not available to explain these features. Same at Saturn: Enceladus shows widespread resurfacing and may have active water volcanos, Dione and Rhea show vast fields of surface frost, Iapetus is half-coated in dark material, and Titan has an atmosphere that is quickly eroding. At Uranus, Ariel and Titania show resurfacing and Miranda is a mosaic of old-looking and young-looking features. Even as far out as Neptune, the coldest body in the solar system – Triton, at 300 below zero – has active nitrogen geysers and few craters, looking like much of its surface has been reworked recently. Back at home, our own moon exhibits transient lunar phenomena, short-lived bright or gaseous emissions from an interior that should long ago have solidified if as old as claimed. Io is forcing planetary geologists to question their assumptions. Would that one of them would break rank and question the assumption of 4.6 billion years. But that would be aiding and abetting the enemy, the young-earth creationists. No respectable scientist would want to be caught dead in such a trespass, or risk offending the Darwin Party. Check out this issue of Icarus. Look at the pictures and read the descriptions with a mind freed of evolutionary presuppositions. Where does the evidence lead?(Visited 17 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Durban harbour is one of the 10 largest in the world. South Africa’s World Bank ranking for trading across borders has jumped by 29 positions, due to the roll-out of government policy that addresses the need to decrease the time, cost, and red tape companies have to deal with to get products to port and shipped to international markets. (Image: Brand South Africa) • Manusha Pillai Communications Manager Brand South Africa+27 11 483 0122 [email protected] • Zuma urges Team SA to sell South Africa at Davos• WEF Davos 2014: Keeping up with a fast-changing world • Watch: Davos 2014 pre-meeting press conference• Cape to Cairo trade agreement to open up African borders • Watch: The South African Competitiveness ForumMiller Matola, CEO of Brand South AfricaWhen the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) published its Human Development Report in 2013, it contained powerful insights about the increasingly important role developing countries, such as South Africa and Brazil, are playing in the 21st century.The UNDP indicates that the South (developing nations and emerging markets) currently produces half the world’s economic output. To further illustrate the significant shift in the global economic balance of power, the UNDP argues that the combined GDP of eight developing countries – Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, South Africa and Turkey – equals the GDP of the United States. This implies for the UNDP that countries such as Brazil, South Africa, India and China have become major drivers of the global economy and thus forces for change in the developing world.South Africa is becoming an economic force to be reckoned with in this rapidly changing global economic and, by implication, geopolitical environment, mainly due to the long-term socioeconomic vision and the associated policy-making of its government. Its successes, in terms of its global perception and rankings in key influential indices – such as the World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report, the World Bank Ease of Doing Business Index, the World Economic Forum Travel and Tourism Index – could set a benchmark for other emerging countries to follow.What emerges is a pattern of country performance indicating that South Africa matches and outperforms other peer developing countries in critical areas of national competency. These are important indicators to utilise in the process of positioning South Africa as a reliable trade partner, and attractive investment destination.This continuing improvement in performance on the global stage is attributable to strong and highly focused government policies that support the country’s global and regional growth aspirations. As South Africa heads for 20 years of democracy, the country occupies an increasingly strong position globally, as a developing nation, in the early 21st century.The many global economic indicators used to assess the strength of nation brands highlight that South Africa has unique competitive strengths in the context of the developing world, and these are being leveraged to good effect to enhance the country’s standing in the global marketplace. This can be seen in the broader context of South Africa’s inclusion into the Brics grouping of nations, and the country’s competitiveness compared to other developing nations.Ease of doing businessThe most recent World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Index ranks the country’s financial services sector, banks and stock exchange as the top global performers, while the country places 15th globally for the quality of its air transport infrastructure.Furthermore, South Africa, if compared to the other Brics nations, comes first in five of the 10 criteria the World Bank uses to assess ease of doing business: starting a business, dealing with construction permits, getting credit, protecting investors, and paying taxes. This means that South Africa offers protection to foreign direct investments, and is certainly a business-friendly environment wherein new trade, investment, and related economic interactions can be fostered.The South African government’s commitment to creating an environment that makes it easy for companies to do business in the country has been recognised in the latest edition of the World Bank’s East of Doing Business Index (DBI), published in 2013. South Africa now ranks first among the Brics nations in six critical DBI criteria. The country can therefore make a strong business case to attract trade partners, investment, and clients from fellow Brics members. As a nation that offers several competitive advantages, an open business environment is an important feature to utilise as a selling point for South Africa as a business destination. New government policies introduced now make starting a business in the country easier than ever, by implementing new company law that eliminates the requirement to reserve a company name and simplifies the incorporation documents. South Africa has also made transferring property less costly and more efficient by reducing the transfer duty and introducing electronic filing.In addition, a new reorganisation process has been introduced to facilitate the rehabilitation of financially distressed companies. South Africa has also improved its performance on the trading across borders rank. In the same World Bank Index, South Africa has significantly improved its rankings (by 29 positions), due to the roll-out of government policy that addresses the need to decrease the time, cost, and red tape companies have to deal with to get products to port and shipped to international markets.Travel and tourismSouth Africa is also praised for its government policies, rules and regulations relating to travel and tourism, and their conduciveness to the sector’s development. The country now ranks 29th out of 140 countries globally in the World Economic Forum’s Travel and Tourism Index, indicating that it has been making steady improvements in this area over the past few assessments.South Africa ranks third in the Sub-Saharan Africa region after Seychelles (first) and Mauritius (second). Important findings from WEF indicate South Africa comes in high at 17th place for its natural resources, and 58th for cultural resources. This, according to WEF, is due primarily to the country’s many World Heritage sites, rich fauna, creative industries, and the many international fairs and exhibitions hosted. The latter can be interpreted as a strong selling point for the country, with communications implications. A further positive finding WEF indicates is that South Africa’s infrastructure is well developed for the region, directly supporting the growth of the travel and tourism trade, with air transport infrastructure ranked 43rd, and a particularly good assessment of railroad quality (46th) and road quality (42nd).The golden thread that ties together and underpins all of these world ranking achievements for South Africa is the strength and innovative nature of its government policies, from the National Development Plan to the National Infrastructure Plan. Such strong government policy making and implementation sends a clear message to the world that South Africa is open for business and is a destination of choice for investment, based on solid and trusted fundamentals. This is a strategic, best practice approach that could be replicated for the benefit of fellow emerging market countries around the world.
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest With the likelihood of 2018 farm economics again favoring soybean production, soybeans being planted after soybeans could be on the rise this spring.With consecutive years of soybean production, yield potential declines and the potential need for additional inputs and precautions increases.“Agronomically, we never like to see beans after beans, but when it gets into your back pocket sometimes we have to do some things differently,” said Mike Earley, Seed Consultants, Inc. agronomist. “We need to make sure to not plant the same variety in the same field back to back. If we get into continuous beans for multiple years we need to do a lot more scouting and chances are we are going to need some fungicide applications because of a lot more disease pressure in the fields.”In addition to increased potential for soybean issues including Phytophthora, white mold and frogeye leaf spot, more soybeans could also mean more yield loss to soybean cyst nematode (SCN). The silent robber of soybean yields has been on the rise and has been found in over 60% of Ohio soybean fields, according to Ohio State University Extension. SCN yield losses of 25% to 50% can take place with no above ground symptoms.Of course, the easiest way to combat SCN is crop rotation, but if that is not an option then variety selection becomes increasingly important.“Almost all of the soybean varieties sold to farmers in Ohio are labeled ‘Resistant to SCN,’ ‘Resistant to SCN Race 3’ or something similar. Most of the time, a variety labeled as SCN-resistant got its resistance from an ancestral soybean line called PI (Plant Introduction) 88788,” wrote Anne Dorrance, Laura Lindsey, Terry Niblack, and Chris Taylor with Ohio State University Extension in the CORN Newsletter. “This source of resistance was considered broad-spectrum, highly durable, and relatively easy to transfer into the new high-yielding varieties via traditional breeding practices, and that’s why most of our soybean varieties have this resistance. Based on data from hundreds of trials in locations throughout the Midwest, varieties that have this source of resistance will yield higher than similar varieties with no resistance even when SCN populations are low.”Testing for SCN also becomes increasingly important in fields of soybeans planted after soybeans. There are numerous labs that measure the SCN populations, including OSU’s own C. Wayne Ellett Plant and Pest Diagnostic Clinic. The latest fact sheet has contact information for each of these labs and management practices can be found at http://ohioline.osu.edu/ac-fact/pdf/0039.pdf.
Essential Reading! Get my first book: The Only Sale Guide You’ll Ever Need “The USA Today bestseller by the star sales speaker and author of The Sales Blog that reveals how all salespeople can attain huge sales success through strategies backed by extensive research and experience.” Buy Now Christopher Ingraham at the Washington Post, citing a Brookings Institution report, notes that U.S. businesses are being destroyed faster than they are being created. His article begins, “The American economy is less entrepreneurial than at any time in the last three decades.”Frank Bruni at the New York Times write about America the Shrunken. Bruni, on the American psyche, writes: “The American dream, 2014 edition: Squirrel away nuts for a leaner tomorrow. The worst is yet to come, so insure yourself against it if you’re among the lucky few who can . . . More and more I get the sense that we’ve lost it, and by “it” I mean the optimism that was always the lifeblood of this luminous experiment, the ambition that has been its foundation. the swagger that made us so envied and so reviled.”The fact that fewer business are being started and those that are aren’t making it through their first year means that anyone with the gumption and a little hustle are going to have an easier time succeeding. It’s always easier when fewer are willing to compete with you for attention and the opportunity to serve customers. But there are going to be many more haters criticising you for being brash, bold, and in their eyes, reckless.Optimism is in short supply in our political and business leadership. But people aren’t too long for leaders who believe that things are getting worse and duck and cover. People follow leaders who are certain that a better future awaits them and drive towards that future. Leaders who don’t believe that the future will be better aren’t really leaders. There is no such thing as a pessimistic leader, even though there may be pessimists with formal authority and power.Don’t allow your mind to be infected with a negative belief system. It’s morning wherever you are as soon as you believe it is.
Eight children were killed and 10 injured on Tuesday when their school van fell into a deep gorge in the district, officials said.The incident occurred on the Pratap Nagar-Kangsali-Madan Negi motor road when the van was on its way to Madannegi, Tehri District Magistrate V Shanmugam said. Two children escaped with minor injuries and the injured have been brought to the District Hospital Bauradi, he said. Rescue operations are underway, the DM said.