Football by Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksYou May Likecio.comUnlocking the Success of Digital Transformation with Active Intelligencecio.comUndoMicrosoftBring your desktop to life with Bing WallpaperMicrosoftUndoCapital One ShoppingThis hack can uncover JOANN discounts you don’t know aboutCapital One ShoppingUndoBrad Bedford, a veteran audience measurement executive, has been appointed Global Managing Director of GAMMA, the alliance has stated in a joint Press release.GAMMA aims to leverage the collective knowledge and sector expertise of each member to advance audience measurement solutions worldwide. Through closer cooperation, the participants intend to identify strategies and solutions that are more transparent and standardized. This will ensure greater efficiency, consistency and scope for audience measurement providers and their partners from this point forward.Also Read: IPL 2019: Star’s broadcast strategy attracts more female audience“Audience measurement across the world needs to constantly innovate to keep pace with emerging trends. We at BARC India have always been open to learning from our global counterparts and this international alliance offers a tremendous platform to not only learn from our peers, but also to contribute.” said Partho Dasgupta, CEO, BARC India.“As in every other field, audience measurement needs to cater to changing media behaviors. Partnering with Television, Internet and Radio professionals for decades has allowed Mediametrie to develop unique technological and methodological expertise in audience measurement. We’re pleased to share these achievements with our colleagues, via this new alliance, to further accelerate innovation within the industry”, added Bruno Chetaille, Chairman and CEO, Médiamétrie”.“This global body will help us leverage knowledge, innovation and audience measurement expertise as a result of more effective discussions with key international players. We are confident that this alliance will be a significant conduit in gaining stronger cooperation towards more consistent, transparent, standardized and interoperable audience measurement,” said Neil McEneaney, President & CEO, Numeris.Also Read: Pro Wrestling off to steady start, 9.3 million TV audience for first 5 ties“While each market behaves differently and has unique challenges, the single issue common to all audience measurement providers today is the ability to capture complete viewership, irrespective of screen. Innovation and collaboration remain the primary criteria and this expanded global relationship provides a major step towards that end,” said Yuzuru Kato, President & CEO, Video Research Ltd.Said Bedford, “There is an ever-increasing demand for cross device measurement internationally and the partnering of these audience measurement companies seeks to facilitate continued movement in that direction. I am truly honoured to represent this effort on a global scale. We are confident GAMMA will be a source of great knowledge sharing and continued learning for the industry.”Audience Measurement systems worldwide have been evolving to meet the emerging needs of the industry. Rapid advancements in technology are re-shaping both the distribution as well as the consumption of content. These changes are not only country-specific but have a global impact, given the true nature of digital media. GAMMA can be the game changer for the TV audience measurement metrics.Also Read: BARC Ratings: SS1 Hindi consolidates on IPL broadcast, but others falter RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Football WI vs SA 2nd Test Day 3 Live: South Africa lose early wickets; SA 50/3 (16.4 ov)- Follow Live Updates By Kunal Dhyani – May 15, 2019 Euro 2020- Switzerland beat Turkey 3-1: Shaqiri brace ensure 3-1 win; Switzerland’s fate hangs on other Group results WTC Final Day 3 Stumps: India remove Conway and Latham but Kiwis on top; NZ 101/2 (49 ovs) trail by 116 runs WTC Final LIVE: Devon Conway continues red-hot form, slams fifty to provide New Zealand dream start Cricket BCCI Apex Council Meet: BCCI to bid for 3 major global events in next tournament cycle starting from 2024; Check Cricket Share on Facebook Tweet on Twitter Latest Sports News Cricket Cricket Euro 2020, Italy vs Wales LIVE: Matteo Pessina goal helps Italy beat Wales, finish top of Group A with flawless record; Follow Live Updates Football TAGSBARCBARC IndiaBroadcast Audience Research CouncilMédiamétrie FranceNumeris Canada SHARE Broadcast Audience Research Council (BARC) from India, Médiamétrie (France), Numeris (Canada) and Video Research (Japan) will collaborate on future audience measurement initiatives including the development of common technical standards and operational processes, in order to benefit the existing currency services each member operates, in their respective market, through their current organization and measurement partners.The four Global Alliance for the Measurement of Media Audiences (GAMMA) founding nations collectively account for a total population of more than 1.5 billion and represent a combined advertising spend of $78 billion (15% of the global total). WTC Final IND vs NZ: Virat Kohli displays his dancing skills on the beats of Bharat Army’s Dhol; Watch video Facebook Twitter BARC, France, Canada, Japan bodies join hands to align TV data metrics Cricket YourBump15 Actors That Hollywood Banned For LifeYourBump|SponsoredSponsoredUndoDaily FunnyFemale Athlete Fails You Can’t Look Away FromDaily Funny|SponsoredSponsoredUndoPost FunThese Twins Were Named “Most Beautiful In The World,” Wait Until You See Them TodayPost Fun|SponsoredSponsoredUndoMaternity WeekA Letter From The Devil Written By A Possessed Nun In 1676 Has Been TranslatedMaternity Week|SponsoredSponsoredUndoDefinitionTime Was Not Kind To These 28 CelebritiesDefinition|SponsoredSponsoredUndoMisterStoryWoman Files For Divorce After Seeing This Photo – Can You See Why?MisterStory|SponsoredSponsoredUndo Previous articleCreative Heads shortlist Star Re.Imagine Awards 2019 nominationsNext articleIndia’s World Cup squad is one quality pacer short, says Gambhir Kunal DhyaniSports Tech enthusiast, he reports on Sports Tech industry and writes on sports products. 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The Garriga Houses / Blancafort-Reus ArquitecturaSave this projectSaveThe Garriga Houses / Blancafort-Reus Arquitectura “COPY” Photographs Houses Save this picture!© Albert Font+ 10 Share The Garriga Houses / Blancafort-Reus Arquitectura ArchDaily Year: Projects Year: Architects: Blancafort-Reus Arquitectura Year Completion year of this architecture project photographs: Albert FontPhotographs: Albert FontSave this picture!© Albert FontText description provided by the architects. The project aims to solve the program so that, despite its simplicity, is promoting complex spatial and functional relationships.
The building geometry optimizes the indoor-outdoor ofreciando solar control, privacy, protection of vehicles and wonderful views over the surroundingsSave this picture!Floor PlanProject gallerySee allShow lessPublic School 158 Bayard Taylor Library / A*PT ARCHITECTUREArticlesStoaninger Mühlviertel Destillation / HPSASelected Projects Share ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/437024/the-garriga-houses-blancafort-reus-arquitectura Clipboard CopyHouses•La Garriga, Spain 2008 ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/437024/the-garriga-houses-blancafort-reus-arquitectura Clipboard CopyAbout this officeBlancafort-Reus ArquitecturaOfficeFollowProductsWoodGlassConcrete#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousesLa GarrigaHousesSpainPublished on October 13, 2013Cite: “The Garriga Houses / Blancafort-Reus Arquitectura” 13 Oct 2013. ArchDaily. Accessed 11 Jun 2021.
“COPY” Area: 7200 m² Year Completion year of this architecture project France Apartments ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/801079/56-apartments-in-nantes-phd-architectes Clipboard Save this picture!© Sergio GraziaText description provided by the architects. This project starts from the center and is one of the most multi-purposed buildings the agency has ever undertaken: 56 apartments, a nursery school, a center for social reintegration and offices. It is in Nantes (western France), right in the middle of the historical old town, not far from the Beaux-Art museum. This very urbanized installation surrounds and highlights a wooded garden that has been preciously preserved.Save this picture!© Sergio GraziaSave this picture!Floor PlanSave this picture!© Sergio GraziaThe facilities are on the ground floor, and the entirely windowed outer walls are drawn with great precision along the street. They blend into the landscape in the depth of the inner garden and progressively embed into the slope to lodge their garden-roofs in the shade of the cedar trees. The tiered façades of the apartments stretch along the street. The building is split by two wide breaches along its top to provide neighbors with views of the inner landscape and residents triple exposures, extended by the angled loggias that overlook the street or garden. As well as views of the Saint-Clément church steeple and the nearby Jardin des Plantes. The contemporary architectural language is intentional with all of the outer walls decorated in horizontal metallic cladding and bands, between which are inserted shutters, louvers and stainless-steel panels with curtain-like folds. The garden at the building’s center illustrates another conception of town-center density that is both generous and landscaped. Save this picture!© Sergio GraziaSave this picture!© Sergio GraziaProduct Description. The contemporary architectural language is intentional: buildings are insulated by the exterior, all of the outer walls decorated in horizontal metallic cladding, sometimes in lacquered sheet metal, sometimes pleated in mirror stainless-steel, ensuring the facades durability, between which are inserted shutters, louvers and stainless-steel panels with curtain-like folds. Each element is set on a 1m wide and 2.20m high framework, wedged between the horizontal bands that ensure the C + D regulatory. Save this picture!© Sergio GraziaThese panels are complemented by sliding doors for loggias and accordion shutters, also in mirror stainless steel, in line with the glazed chassis of the rooms, and living rooms not protected by balconies.Save this picture!© Sergio GraziaSave this picture!© Michel DenancéThese devices ensure the building thermal performance and allow everyone to control light and views, to preserve comfort and privacy.Save this picture!© Sergio GraziaProject gallerySee allShow lessKengo Kuma’s Tokyo 2020 Olympic Stadium Begins ConstructionArchitecture NewsSee the Best Architecture of 2016Architecture NewsProject locationAddress:Nantes, FranceLocation to be used only as a reference. It could indicate city/country but not exact address. Share ArchDaily ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/801079/56-apartments-in-nantes-phd-architectes Clipboard Save this picture!© Michel Denancé+ 23 Share 56 Apartments in Nantes / PHD ArchitectesSave this projectSave56 Apartments in Nantes / PHD Architectes Architects: Philippe Dubus Architectes Area Area of this architecture project Photographs: Michel Denancé, Sergio Grazia Manufacturers Brands with products used in this architecture project Year: Projects Photographs Manufacturers: Technal, Arcelor Mittal, TECHNAL FY SOLEAL Products translation missing: en-US.post.svg.material_description 56 Apartments in Nantes / PHD Architectes CopyApartments, Social Housing•Nantes, France “COPY” 2015 CopyAbout this officePhilippe Dubus ArchitectesOfficeFollowProductsGlassSteelConcrete#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousingApartmentsSocial HousingNantesFrancePublished on December 14, 2016Cite: “56 Apartments in Nantes / PHD Architectes” 14 Dec 2016. ArchDaily. Accessed 11 Jun 2021.
ArchDaily “COPY” Area: 37 m² Year Completion year of this architecture project “COPY” Houses 2 Single Rooms / Ji ArchitectSave this projectSave2 Single Rooms / Ji ArchitectSave this picture!Entrance after renovation. Image © Hongyue Wang+ 27Curated by 韩爽 – HAN Shuang Share CopyHouses, Renovation•Beijing, China Photographs ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/938002/2-single-rooms-ji-architect Clipboard China ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/938002/2-single-rooms-ji-architect Clipboard Architects: Ji Architect Area Area of this architecture project 2019 Photographs: Hongyue WangDesigner:Wenhui Lu, Jieran LiContractor:ZJJN Construction CO.,LTDCity:BeijingCountry:ChinaMore SpecsLess SpecsSave this picture!The exterior of bedroom 1. Image © Hongyue WangRecommended ProductsWindowsJansenWindows – Janisol PrimoPartitionsSkyfoldVertically Folding Operable Walls – Classic™ SeriesWoodEGGERLaminatesMetallicsStudcoWall Stop Ends – EzyCapText description provided by the architects. Jí Architect, at the request of Party A, remodeled a 37 m2 old house in a Hutong of Beijing. The original dwelling, with a 2.7 m clear height and only one bedroom, turned into a full-featured staff residence with two independent bedrooms.Save this picture!Public corridor. Image © Hongyue WangThe house is located on the first floor of a two-story building lining the North Xinhua Street. Though with an exclusive entrance, the house’s lighting and ventilation were less than ideal. An open shaft in the rear part of the house cut into the access to the bathroom, a total inconvenience especially on rainy days.Our solutions and Goals:1.The shaft was moved northward horizontally by 0.75 m, sparing the room for an indoor passage to the bathroom. The area freed by the move was also transformed to be part of the outdoor courtyard integrated into bedroomSave this picture!Public corridor. Image © Hongyue WangSave this picture!New skylight and yard. Image © Hongyue Wang2.Each of the bedrooms was equipped with a bed, a desk, and cabinets for daily living. The space was cleared after the renovation and two large wooden pieces of furniture were placed, it also forming the boundary of the two bedrooms and providing spacious room for storage.Save this picture!Bedroom 1. Image © Hongyue WangSave this picture!Flexible space diagramSave this picture!Bedroom 2. Image © Hongyue Wang3.A public area was embedded between two bedrooms functioning as a living room, a mini kitchen, a dining room, and a laundry room. A sofa zone shaped by the backspace of bedroom 1 created when the bed of bedroom 1 was raised. Pulling out the table and chairs with wheels under the countertop, the two residents could savor a cup of coffee in serenitySave this picture!Public pantry. Image © Hongyue WangSave this picture!Public pantry and corridor. Image © Hongyue Wang4.Semi –transparent materials and operable elements adopted as part of the boundary of the two bedrooms. The design facilitated the ventilation and creates visual connection between the bedrooms and the public area and endowed residents with full control over their room’s privacy and openness.Save this picture!Skylight and yard. Image © Hongyue WangIn spite of the limited space, we intended to create the comfort and privacy of the two bedrooms while maximizing the possibilities for two residents to communicate and make changes in the blank space. The perfect independence of the two wooden box-like rooms floating in the white space provided residents with an amazing living experience of privacy and freedom.Project gallerySee allShow lessJiao-xi Presbyterian Church / AMBi StudioSelected ProjectsBrickell Flatiron Residential Tower / Revuelta Architecture InternationalSelected Projects Share Year: Projects 2 Single Rooms / Ji Architect CopyAbout this officeJi ArchitectOfficeFollowProductsWoodSteelStone#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousesRefurbishmentRenovationBeijingOn FacebookChinaPublished on April 28, 2020Cite: “2 Single Rooms / Ji Architect” 28 Apr 2020. ArchDaily. Accessed 10 Jun 2021.
Linkedin NewsLocal NewsDPP directions sought for murder accusedBy admin – December 18, 2009 547 Advertisement APPEARING in Limerick District Court via video link from Limerick Prison, dressed in a Lions Rugby jacket, waving and making gestures to the camera, 19-year-old Kenneth Collopy of Kilonan Ballysimon was notified by the DPP and the State, that a Book of Evidence was being prepared in relation to the murder of Daniel Fitzgerald at Cloughdromin, Ballysimon on December 8 last. Sign up for the weekly Limerick Post newsletter Sign Up Collopy, the accused, was formally charged, last Monday at 9.15pm at Roxboro Road Garda Station by Detective Garda Dave Nolan, with the alleged murder of the 24-year-old carpenter at dead man’s residence in Ballysimon.John Herbert was appointed as legal aid for the accused. Inspector Seamus Gallagher sought an adjournment until December 30 next to await the directions of the DPP.Judge Aeneas McCarthy remanded Kenneth Collopy in continuing custody to the governor of Limerick Prison to reappear in court on that date via video link. Print WhatsApp Email Facebook Twitter Previous articleNo joy for Market tradersNext articleBank appoints a receiver to property firm admin
News LUH system challenged by however, work to reduce risk to patients ongoing – Dr Hamilton Twitter Previous articleMore budget protests taking place this afternoonNext articleHundreds attend budget demonstrations in seven Donegal towns and villages News Highland RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR WhatsApp Twitter Facebook Oil transfer complete in Belfast Lough Facebook NPHET ‘positive’ on easing restrictions – Donnelly Three factors driving Donegal housing market – Robinson Calls for maternity restrictions to be lifted at LUH The transfer of 54,000 tonnes of oil from a damaged tanker in Belfast Lough has been successfully completed.The Genmar Companion had been sheltering in the Lough since a crack was found on its deck 40 miles off Tory Island just over three weeks ago as the ship was heading from Rottrerdam to New York.The oil was pumped onto the BW Seine in an operation that started on Friday evening, and had to be halted at least once as a result of high winds.The Genmar Companion is now being brought into Belfast Harbour for repairs. By News Highland – January 8, 2012 Pinterest WhatsApp Almost 10,000 appointments cancelled in Saolta Hospital Group this week Pinterest Google+ Guidelines for reopening of hospitality sector published Google+
Previous articleManagement at LGH say Higgins recommendations are good for DonegalNext articleJohn Gallagher charged with making threats to kill News Highland Man arrested on suspicion of drugs and criminal property offences in Derry 365 additional cases of Covid-19 in Republic Pinterest News Further drop in people receiving PUP in Donegal WhatsApp By News Highland – May 17, 2013 Twitter Facebook Facebook RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Google+ The SDLP’s Pat Ramsey has been accused of making a political football out of funding for the Brandywell Stadium.Mr Ramsey had called for 110 million euro of funding set aside to redevelop Windsor Park to be allocated to the Brandywell project.This on the basis that no binding agreement to develop Windsor was in place.Pat Ramsey says that at a High Court case in which Glentoran are challenging the funding tentatively awarded to Windsor Park, the Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure’s lawyer pointed out that the decision by DCAL to award funding had not yet taken place – he wants the funding directed to Derry.But Sinn Féin MLA Maeve McLaughlin says Pat Ramsey is either misinformed of funding criteria and allocation, or he is deliberately exploiting the undoubted need for refurbishment of Brandywell Stadium as a political football.She adds that it is no surprise that final funding agreements are at different stages of completion or development and that this in no way affects the ongoing development of each stadium.Ms McLaughlin said if Pat Ramsey was interested in the refurbishment of the Brandywell he would have ensured that his Party colleagues on Derry City Council supported a motion that was brought to the table in 2010.The proposal, despite Sinn Féin making numerous public and private interventions, was blocked by other Parties including the SDLP. Main Evening News, Sport and Obituaries Tuesday May 25th Pat Ramsey accused of using Brandywell development proposals as a “political football” WhatsApp Pinterest Twitter Google+ 75 positive cases of Covid confirmed in North Gardai continue to investigate Kilmacrennan fire
ColumnsU.S. Supreme Court On Absolute Immunity Of The American President (The Case Of Trump V. Vance) Jana Kalyan Das8 March 2021 4:41 AMShare This – xOne of the most baffling legal questions confronting the judiciary in most constitutional democracies, the world over, is how to balance the increasing demands of the political Executive for Absolute Immunity from all prosecutions and the protection and preservation of basic individual rights guaranteed under the Constitution and the laws. Can any modern democracy countenance a…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginOne of the most baffling legal questions confronting the judiciary in most constitutional democracies, the world over, is how to balance the increasing demands of the political Executive for Absolute Immunity from all prosecutions and the protection and preservation of basic individual rights guaranteed under the Constitution and the laws. Can any modern democracy countenance a situation whereunder the legal maxim ‘rex non potest peccare’, i.e. “the King can do no wrong”, an English common law doctrine which is a hangover from the ‘ancien regime’ i.e. the feudal era of Europe, be pressed into service to grant Absolute Immunity to present day Executives ?. The Supreme Court of the United States of America in the recent case of Trump v. Vance 591 U.S. ___ (2020) has addressed this question. The facts first. Upon receiving a subpoena (a court process which is like a summons from a criminal court in India) from the District Attorney Office of New York County based on a request from a Grand Jury for production of documents on allegations of possible tax evasion and insurance and bank fraud, relating to personal businesses of president Trump a petition in the Federal District Court was filed by the president challenging the legality of the subpoena and the competence of the District Attorney to issue the same to a sitting president. A grand jury in USA is essentially a legal body, usually composed of 16 to 23 citizens, which is empowered to conduct official proceedings and investigate potential criminal conduct of an accused and determine whether criminal charges should be brought against the alleged wrongdoer. The system of grand jury has continued to exist in USA, having received constitutional recognition, by way of the 5th Amendment to the American Constitution which reads as follows “No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury……”. Noticeably, the system of grand jury has been abandoned in most other jurisdictions of the world including India. A grand jury in ordinary legal parlance thus is basically a mechanism for collection of evidence and also for weighing and shifting the same to arrive at a conclusion to proceed or not to proceed against the alleged wrongdoer. While doing so a grand jury is competent to compel the production of documents and record statements on oath by issuing subpoenas (similar to summons issued by Indian Courts). The function of a grand jury is a unique amalgam of both accusatory and investigatory exercises. It is composed of ordinary lay citizens who examine a set of evidence put forth by a prosecutor in a criminal investigation. In USA, unlike a ‘trial jury’ which is also referred to as a ‘petite jury’ which participates in a criminal trial in a court of law and returns a finding of ‘guilt’ or ‘ innocence’ a grand jury is not competent to do so. Matters referred to a grand jury are always handled behind closed doors and are highly secretive in nature. On the basis of the documents and evidence collected the grand jury, in exercise of its accusatory function, determines whether there is ‘probable cause’ to believe that one or more persons have committed a certain offence. Coming now to the facts of the present case of president Trump since, the subpoena directed M/s Mazars (the tax accounting firm of president Donald Trump) to produce financial records relating to the president and business organizations affiliated with him, the president, acting in his personal capacity invoked the jurisdiction of the Federal District Court challenging the subpoena. It was the contention of president Trump that under Article II of the U.S. Constitution and the Supremacy Clause, a sitting president enjoys absolute immunity from state criminal process. Trump further prayed for a stay of the operation and effect of the subpoena, as well as, all future steps for enforcing the same. His tax firm M/s Mazars took no position on the legal issues raised by the president in his petition on the specious plea that the dispute was only between the president and the office of the District Attorney of New York County. After hearing arguments the District Court refused to exercise jurisdiction in the matter and dismissed the case on the basis of the earlier Supreme Court judgment titled Younger Vs. Harris, 401 U.S. 37 (1971) wherein it was held that United States federal courts were required to abstain from hearing any civil rights tort claims brought by a person who is currently being prosecuted for a matter arising from that claim. Mr. Justice Black, delivering the opinion of the court had held “a court of the United States may not grant an injunction to stay proceedings in a state court except as expressly authorized by act of congress, or where necessary in aid of its jurisdiction, or to protect or effectuate its judgements” Being aggrieved, president Trump approached the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. The Appeal Court in its judgment did not agree with the District Court’s rejection of the appeal on the basis of a mechanical reliance upon the judgment of Younger Vs. Harris. However, it agreed with the District Court in holding that president Trump was not entitled to any preliminary injunction, in as much as, “presidential immunity does not bar the enforcement of a State grand jury subpoena directing a third party to produce non-privileged material, even when the subject matter under investigation pertained to the president”. It also rejected the argument of the Solicitor General of U.S.A. that a state grand jury subpoena must satisfy a heightened showing of need and that the judgments relied upon by the Solicitor General, who appeared as amicus curiae in the matter, pertained to privileged Executive Branch Communications and hence, were not relevant to the facts of the present case whereunder the subpoena had only sought information relating solely to the president in his private capacity and was in no manner connected with the discharge of his constitutional obligations. The Court of Appeals, nevertheless, directed that the case be remanded to the District Court and the President was at liberty to raise further arguments as deemed appropriate. President Trump carried the challenge further to the U.S. Supreme Court by filing a petition for grant of CERTIORARI. By a 7-2 majority the Supreme Court of the United States rejected the challenge. Chief justice John Roberts delivered the opinion/judgment of the court in which Associate Justices Ginsburg, Breyer, Sotomayor, and Kagan, joined. Justice Kavanaugh, and Justice Gorsuch filed a separate common opinion/judgment concurring with the majority view. However, Justice Thomas and Justice Alito field separate opinions dissenting with the majority opinion. In its majority opinion/judgment the court drew heavily from past precedents i.e. from the celebrated case of United States Vs. Burr, 25 F. Cas. 30, 33-34 delivered by CHIEF JUSTICE JOHN MARSHALL who had also delivered the historic judgment on Judicial Review in the case of Marbury v. Madison. In the case of United States v. Burr, the accused Burr (who became the Vice-President of U.S.A.) had got a subpoena issued from the court directing president Thomas Jefferson to produce a letter received by the president from General Wilkinson and accompanying documents which the president had referred in his massage to the congress. The president had opposed the request arguing that a sitting president could not be subjected to such a subpoena and that the letter might contain state secrets. Chief Justice Marshall rejected the objection and held that the president does not “stand exempt from the general provisions of the constitution” and in particular, the Sixth Amendment’s guarantee that those accused have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses for their defense. Further, giving a purposive construction to the Sixth Amendment Justice Marshall held that the expression ‘evidence’ should also extend to documents and other materials which are relevant for the defense. In his judgement he held thus: “A subpoena duces tecum, may issue to any person to whom an ordinary subpoena may issue. No fair construction of the Constitution supported the conclusion that the right to compel the attendance of witnesses does not extend to requiring those witnesses to bring with them such papers as may be material in the defense. And as a matter of basic fairness, permitting such information to be withheld would tarnish the reputation of the court. As for the propriety of introducing any paper, that would depend on the character of the paper, not on the character of the person who holds it.” Rejecting the argument that the King being the vicar of god on earth can do no wrong i.e. the Divine Right theory, Chief Justice Marshall had held “At common law the “single reservation” to the duty to testify in response to a subpoena was “the case of the king, whose “dignity” was seen as “in compatible” with appearing “under the process of the court”. But Marshall explained that a king is born to power and can do no wrong. The president by contrast is of the people and subject to the law”. Unimpressed by the submissions that making the president submit to a court process would impair his duties as Chief Magistrate which demands his whole time for national objects, Marshall held that those demands were ‘not unremitting’ and should the president’s duties preclude his attendance at a particular time and place, a court would work that out upon returned of the subpoena. All these reasoning of Chief Justice Marshall in the case of United States Vs. Burr were profitably quoted by Chief Justice John Roberts in the majority opinion. The majority view also rejected the president’s contention that complying with state criminal subpoenas would necessarily distract the chief executive from his duties and further rejected the reliance of the president on the judgment of the Supreme Court in the case of Nixon v. Fitzgerald 457 U.S. 731 (1982) which had recognized a presidents absolute immunity from damages liability arising out of his official acts. In doing so the court relied upon the earlier case of Clinton v Jones 520 U.S. 681 (1997). The majority opinion also rejected Trump’s claim that the stigma of being summoned will undermine his leadership at home and abroad by holding that there is nothing inherently stigmatizing about a president performing the citizens normal duty of furnishing relevant information to a criminal investigation. The majority judgment also rejected the argument that submitting presidents to state criminal process will make them easily identifiable targets for harassment. The court also took into consideration the fact that the judgment of Chief Justice Marshall in United States v. Burr had stood the test of time and was good law which has been reinforced by subsequent events. Successive president’s had accepted Chief Justice Marshall’s ruling that the chief executive is subject to subpoena. In 1818 president Monroe offered to sit for a deposition and ultimately submitted answers to written interrogatories. In 1875 President Grant had submitted a three hour deposition in the criminal prosecution of a political appointee. Similarly, President Ford had also submitted to a court process and had deposed in the trial of his attempted assassin. President Carter had also testified in a case through videotape deposition. In the historic Watergate case President Nixon’s challenge to the subpoena for production of oval office recordings failed and he had to submit to the criminal process. President Trump as well as the Solicitor General for USA had also sought to distinguish all the earlier judgments by arguing that there was no earlier precedent adjudicating the effect of a subpoena issued by a state attorney on behalf of a grand jury of the state on the powers of the President as detailed in Article II and the Supremacy Clause and that the earlier tests and standards applied by the Supreme Court were only to a federal subpoena which could not apply ipso facto to a subpoena issued by the office of the state attorney of New York. They contended that a ‘heightened need’ standard ought to be adopted in such a different situation in keeping with the federal structure of the constitution and the supremacy clause. The court also rejected this argument and reasoned that applying any ‘heightened standard’ would extend protection designed for official documents to the president’s private papers. In doing so the majority once again relied upon the case of United States v. Burr which in the clearest of terms had held that “If there be a paper in the possession of the executive, which is not of an official nature, he must stand, as respects that paper, in nearly the same situation with any other individual”. The court further held that “a double standard has no basis in law and therefore, nothing in Article II or the Supremacy clause supports holding state subpoenas to a higher standard than their federal counterparts”.Having dismissed the writ of certiorari the court held as follows; “the arguments presented here and in the Court of Appeals were limited to absolute immunity and heightened need. The Court of Appeals, however, has directed that the case be returned to the District Court, where the President may raise further arguments as appropriate. We affirm the judgment of the Court of Appeals and remand the case for further proceedings consistent with this opinion.” After remand of the case, a second innings commenced. The challenge was once again carried by president Trump upto the Supreme Court which finally put the issue at rest by dismissing the case. Consequently, President Trump had to submit the documents to the District Attorney Office as directed in the subpoena. The case of Donald Trump v. Cyrus R. Vance is a shot in the arm for Indian Criminal Courts and can be profitably applied in India to the political executive. Chapter VII of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 deals with process to compel the production of things. Sections 91 and 92 of the said chapter expressly allows the court or officer in-charge of a police station to issue summons for production of any document or other thing and failure to do so would invite penal consequences. EXPLANATORY NOTES: Article II of U.S. Constitution SECTION. 1. The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America…………. SECTION. 2. The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offenses against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment. He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments. The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session. SECTION. 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States. Amendment VI of U.S. Constitution In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence. Article VI, Clause 2: The Supremacy Clause This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding. The Supremacy Clause, establishes that the federal constitution and the federal laws take precedence over state laws and even state constitutions. It prohibits states from interfering with the federal government’s exercise of its constitutional powers and from assuming any functions that are exclusively entrusted to the federal governmentViews are personalAuthor is a Senior Lawyer at Supreme CourtNext Story